Coins of Delhi Sultanate
Coins were struck for the first time by the Sulatanate in the name of Iltutmish in gold, silver, billion and copper.
In Bengal, the issues were mostly in silver, with a few special gold coins. On his various coins, Iltutmish’s name is spelt in four different ways.
His usual titles on the Tankas struck outside Bengal are: Al-sultan al-azam sham al-dunya wa’l din abu’l muzaffar Iltutmish al-sultan. Caliph al-Mustansir are also cited on some coins.
Rukn ud-Din Firuz Shah
No gold coins of this ruler are as yet known. Silver Tankas from Delhi are rare while Lakhnauti silver Tankas are very rare. Billion jitals were struck in Delhi and Budaun.
No copper coins are known for this ruler. The ruler’s title on most of the silver tankas is: Al-sultan al-azam rukn al-dunya wa’l din abu’l muzaffar firuz shah bin sultan.
Only one gold coin of Radiyya has so far been published, in Bengal style. Her title on the Delhi silver Tankas is Radiyyat al-Din, which is considered rare while the Lakhnauti silver Tankas are with title Jalalat al-Din and are extremely rare.
Caliph al-Mustansir are also cited on her coins. Billion Jitals continued to be struck in both Delhi and Budaun, and later bull and horseman type were discontinued.
Mu’izz ad-Din Bahram Shah
Caliph al-Mustansir is cited on his coins. Billion jitals continued to be struck in both Delhi and Budaun. The bull and horseman type was struck at Delhi and other Delhi types are notable for having the ruler’s name above the horseman.
The ruler’s title on most of the Tankas is: Al-sultan al-azam mu’izz al-dunya wa’l din abu’l muzaffar bahram shah bin al-sultan.
Ala ud-Din Masud Shah
Gold Tankas are rare for this ruler from Lakhnauti in Bengal and Delhi. Caliph al-Mustansir is also cited on his early coins and later Caliph Mustasim from 641. Billion jitals continued to be struck in both Delhi and Budaun as well as at another mint in northern India, possibly Uch.
The ruler’s title on most of the Tankas is: Al-sultan al-azam ala al-dunya wa’l din abu’l muzaffar masud shah ibn al-sultan.
Nasir ud-Din Mahmud
Coins were struck in his name in gold, silver, billion and copper in same mints as above. In Bengal, Tankas were struck in the name of caliph al-Mustansir (at Delhi and Lakhnauti) and later caliph Mustasim (at Delhi only). A single half Tanka in silver is known as well as several one-twelfth Tankas (mashas). In billion bull and horseman type coins was discontinued.
Copper coins are very scarce, consisting mainly of small adlis. Some heavier copper coins are known but is not certain whether they are to be attributed to this ruler or to Nasir al-Din Mahmud Damghan of Madura. The ruler’s title on most of the Tankas is: Al-sultan al-azam nasir al-dunya wa’l din abu’l muzaffar mahmud shah bin (or ibn) al-sultan.
Ghiyath ud-Din Mahmud (Balban)
Balban struck coins in gold, silver, billion and copper. The gold and silver tankas are usually well struck.
The silver Tankas were struck in Alwar, Sultanur and at a hitherto unidentified mint that has provisionally been read as Nimur. A few silver one-twelfth tankas are known.
Balban was the last Sultan to use the horseman design on billion issues. Such coins are very rare and were soon replaced by a new, bilingual type, containing around 0.3 grams of silver. These coins may have been intended as 2 jitals (dugani) pieces, going 24 to the silver Tanka. In copper, he revived the 40-rati piece (paika) 4.6g with its rare half 2.3g.
He also issued a large number of small adlis ranging in weight from 0.65 to around 2.3 grams. The ruler’s title on most of the Tankas is: al-sultan al-azam ghiyath al-dunya wa’l din abu’l muzaffar balban shah al-sultan.
Mu’izz ud-Din Kai-Kubad
During Kai-Kubad’s reign, gold and silver Tankas of usual type were struck in Delhi.
In addition, there are some extremely rare one-third, one-sixth and one-twelfth Tankas.
In billion, the only issue was a 3-gani bilingual coin. Copper paikas and adlis were also struck.
The ruler’s title on most of the Tankas is: Al-sultan al-azam mu’izz al-dunya wa’l din abu’l muzaffar kaiqubad al-sultan.