Typically, IT is used in the context of enterprise operations as opposed to personal or entertainment technologies. The commercial use of IT encompasses both computer technology and telephony.
The term information technology was coined by the Harvard Business Review, in order to make a distinction between purpose-built machines designed to perform a limited scope of functions and general-purpose computing machines that could be programmed for various tasks. As the IT industry evolved from the mid-20th century, it encompassed transistors and integrated circuits — computing capability advanced while device cost and energy consumption fell lower, a cycle that continues today when new technologies emerge.
IT software and hardware
IT includes several layers of physical equipment (hardware), virtualization and management or automation tools, operating systems and applications (software) used to perform essential functions. User devices, peripherals and software, such as laptops, smartphones or even recording equipment, can be included in the IT domain. IT can also refer to the architectures, methodologies and regulations governing the use and storage of data.
Business applications include databases like SQL Server, transactional systems such as real-time order entry, email servers like Exchange, Web servers like Apache, customer relationship management and enterprise resource planning systems. These applications execute programmed instructions to manipulate, consolidate, disperse or otherwise affect data for a business purpose.
Computer servers run business applications. Servers interact with client users and other servers across one or more business networks. Storage is any kind of technology that holds information as data. Information can take any form including file data, multimedia, telephony data and Web data, data from sensors or future formats. Storage includes volatile random access memory (RAM) as well as non-volatile tape, hard disk and solid-state flash drives.
IT architectures have evolved to include virtualization and cloud computing, where physical resources are abstracted and pooled in different configurations to meet application requirements. Clouds may be distributed across locations and shared with other IT users, or contained within a corporate data center, or some combination of both deployments.
ICT (information and communications technology, or technologies)
ICT, or information and communications technology (or technologies), is the infrastructure and components that enable modern computing. Although there is no single, universal definition of ICT, the term is generally accepted to mean all devices, networking components, applications and systems that combined allow people and organizations (i.e., businesses, nonprofit agencies, governments and criminal enterprises) to interact in the digital world.
ICT encompasses both the internet-enabled sphere as well as the mobile one powered by wireless networks. It also includes antiquated technologies, such as landline telephones, radio and television broadcast — all of which are still widely used today alongside cutting-edge ICT pieces such as artificial intelligence and robotics. ICT is sometimes used synonymously with IT (for information technology); however, ICT is generally used to represent a broader, more comprehensive list of all components related to computer and digital technologies than IT.
Computer information technology (CIT) is the use and study of computers, networks, computer languages, and databases within an organization to solve real problems. The major prepares students for applications programming, networking, systems administration, and internet development. Technologies studied in information systems include programming, networking, server administration, information security, database design and development, systems analysis and designing, and web development
Types of Computer
Analog computer is that computer, which performs the functions continuously irrespective of variations in input, which can be in form of fluctuation in voltage or temperature, electrical or mechanical parts. Oscilloscopes, thermostat and thermometer are examples of analog computer. Working with analog computers is not so easy. A number of electrical and mechanical peripheral and supporting devices are required for it to function properly.
A Digital computer is that computer, which performs and accepts the converted binary number data. Today most of the computers are digital computers. It is basically an electronic based computer. Rather than continuous its input functions works discretely. Input can be in form of letters, numbers written and represented in special binary coded languages. Micro computers, personal computers, network servers, super computers and multi processor computers are kinds of digital computer. It uses two binary code or digits 0 and 1, which stands for no and yes, false and true, left and right.
In computer science, a digital electronic computer is a computer machine which is both an electronic computer and a digital computer. Examples of digital electronic computers include the IBM PC, the Apple Macintosh as well as modern smartphones.
When computers that were both digital and electronic appeared, they displaced almost all other kinds of computers, but computation has historically been performed in various non-digital and non-electronic ways.
A digital electronic computer is not necessarily a programmable computer, a stored program computer, or a general purpose computer, since in essence a digital electronic computer can be built for one specific application and be non-reprogrammable. As of 2014, most personal computers and smartphones in people’s homes that use multicore central processing units (such as AMD FX, Intel Core i7, or the multicore varieties of ARM-based chips) are also parallel computers using the MIMD (multiple instructions – multiple data) paradigm, a technology previously only used in digital electronic supercomputers.
As of 2014, most digital electronic supercomputers are also cluster computers, a technology that can be used at home in the form of small Beowulf clusters. Parallel computation is also possible with non-digital or non-electronic computers. An example of a parallel computation system using the abacus would be a group of human computers using a number of abacus machines for computation and communicating using natural language.
A digital computer can perform its operations in the decimal system, in binary, in ternary or in other numeral systems. As of 2014, all digital electronic computers commonly used, whether personal computers or supercomputers, are working in the binary number system and also use binary logic. A few ternary computers using ternary logic were built mainly in the Soviet Union as research projects.
A digital electronic computer is not necessarily a transistorized computer: before the advent of the transistor, computers used vacuum tubes. The transistor enabled electronic computers to become much more powerful, and recent and future developments in digital electronics may enable humanity to build even more powerful electronic computers. One such possible development is the memristor.
People living in the beginning of the 21st century use digital electronic computers for storing data, such as photos, music, documents, and for performing complex mathematical computations or for communication, commonly over a worldwide computer network called the internet which connects many of the world’s computers. All these activities made possible by digital electronic computers could, in essence, be performed with non-digital or non-electronic computers if they were sufficiently powerful, but it was only the combination of electronics technology with digital computation in binary that enabled humanity to reach the computation power necessary for today’s computing.