GS Paper II-Governance, Constitution, Polity and International Relations.

China Drops Meeting With India Saying Atmosphere Not Right For Xi-Modi Meeting At Hamburg G20 Summit.


  • China on July 6, 2017 said the atmosphere was not right for a bilateral meeting between Prime Minister Narendra Modi and President Xi Jinping on the sidelines of the G20 Summit in Hamburg, amidst a standoff between the Armies of the two countries in the Sikkim section.
  • China and India have been engaged in a standoff in the Dokalam area near the Bhutan tri-junction for the past three weeks after a Chinese Army’s construction party attempted to build a road. Doka La is the Indian name for the region which Bhutan recognises as Dokalam, while China claims it as part of its Donglang region.


Highlights Of The Development-

  • The stand-off is located in a section of land high in the Himalayas near what is known as the tri-junction, where Tibet, India and Bhutan meet.
  • There were reports that Modi and Xi may meet on the sidelines of the G20 summit to resolve the standoff.
  • Both Modi and the Chinese president will hold bilateral meetings with other leaders at the summit.
  • Sources in the Indian government said they’re not sure of whether an informal one-on-one meeting for PM Modi and President Xi will take place.
  • The leaders will be part of a smaller session of BRICS – Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa – that will meet on the sidelines of the main G20 summit that collates the leading industrialised and emerging economies.
  • China has this week issued a series of warnings to India – some through state-run newspapers – about the urgent need for New Delhi to withdraw its troops from an area that Beijing claims as its own near Sikkim. Indian soldiers arrived at the area early in June to stop the construction of a road that New Delhi holds as a serious security concern.
  • China says the Indian Army’s actions violate an 1890 border agreement between Britain and China that previous Indian governments have pledged to uphold and that it will not move for any dialogue till Indian troops are pulled back.
  • According to the Chinese interpretation of events, Indian soldiers crossed into China’s Donglang region early in June and obstructed work on a road on the plateau
  • China’s state-run media on Wednesday had quoted Chinese analysts as saying that Beijing would be forced to use a military way to end the standoff in the Sikkim sector if India refuses to listen to the “historical lessons”+ being offered by it.
  • India asked China to retreat from Bhutanese territory.
  • Meanwhile, making it clear that it will not buckle under heated rhetoric from China, India on Wednesday said a diplomatic resolution resulting in a Chinese pullback from Bhutanese territory would resolve the current border stand-off near the Sikkim-Bhutan-Tibet tri-junction.
  • Sources have said the Indian and Chinese governments have been in touch over the tension.

Sources– The Hindu, NDTV.

GS Paper III- Technology, Economic Development.

All One Needs To Know About GST, The New Tax Regime In India.

What is Goods and Services Tax?

It is a destination based tax on consumption of goods and services. It is proposed to be levied at all stages right from manufacture up to final consumption with credit of taxes paid at previous stages available as setoff. In a nutshell, only value addition will be taxed and burden of tax is to be borne by the final consumer.

Which of the existing taxes are proposed to be subsumed under GST?

The GST would replace the following taxes:

(i) taxes currently levied and collected by the Centre:

  1. Central Excise duty, b. Duties of Excise (Medicinal and Toilet Preparations) c. Additional Duties of Excise (Goods of Special Importance) d. Additional Duties of Excise (Textiles and Textile Products) e. Additional Duties of Customs (commonly knownas CVD) f. Special Additional Duty of Customs (SAD) g. Service Tax h. Central Surcharges and Cesses so far as they relate to supply of goods and services

(ii) State taxes that would be subsumed under the GST are:

  1. State VAT b. Central Sales Tax c. Luxury Tax d. Entry Tax (all forms) e. Entertainment and Amusement Tax (exceptwhen levied by the local bodies) f. Taxes on advertisements g. Purchase Tax h. Taxes on lotteries, betting and gambling i. State Surcharges and Cesses so far as they relate to supply of goods and services.

Which are the commodities proposed to be kept outside the purview of GST?

Alcohol for human consumption is kept out of GST by way of definition of GST in the constitution. Five petroleum products viz. petroleum crude, motor spirit (petrol), high speed diesel, natural gas and aviation turbine fuel have temporarily been kept out and GST Council shall decide the date from which they shall be included in GST. Furthermore, electricity has been kept out of GST.

What will be status of Tobacco and Tobacco  products under the GST regime?

Tobacco and tobacco products would be subject to GST. In addition, the Centre would have the power to levy Central Excise duty on these products.

What type of GST is proposed to be implemented?

It would be a dual GST with the Centre and States simultaneously levying it on a common tax base. The GST to be levied by the Centre on intra-State supply of goods and / or services would be called the Central GST (CGST) and that to be levied by the States/ Union territory would be called the State GST (SGST)/ UTGST. Similarly, Integrated GST (IGST) will be levied and administered by Centre on every inter-state supply of goods and services.

How would a particular transaction of goods and services be taxed simultaneously under GST?

The Central GST and the State GST would be levied simultaneously on every transaction of supply of goods and services except the exempted goods and services, goods which are outside the purview of GST and the transactions which are below the prescribed threshold limits.

Sources– The North East Today.


GS Paper IV- Ethics, Integrity.

PM Narendra Modi Pays Homage To Soldiers At Haifa On Day 3 Of Israel Visit On 6th July, 2017.


  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Thursday, 6th July, 2017, visited the Indian cemetery in Haifa, Israel, and paid homage to Indian soldiers whose bravery in 1918’s Battle of Haifa is the stuff of legend.
  • He also laid a wreath at the cemetery of Indian soldiers who laid down their lives during the World War 1 while protecting the city from the powerful forces of the Ottoman Empire on what is the last day of his three-day visit to Israel.
  • PM Modi is the first Indian Prime Minister to visit Israel, making it a historic trip.

Key Points Of This Development-

  • PM Modi met Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and President Reuven Rivlin in Tel Aviv. The leaders are seeking to strengthen India-Israel relationship on a range of areas including defence and technology. Wide-ranging delegation-level talks have been held between the two countries to enhance India-Israel ties in security, agriculture, water, energy and defence, among others. PM Modi and Prime Minister Netanyahu also discussed measures to counter terrorism and increase cooperation in sharing of intelligence in this regard. Economic, cultural and people-to-people ties are being discussed and a number of agreements have been signed between India and Israel.
  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi visited the Indian cemetery in the Israeli city of Haifa and paid homage to Indian soldiers who laid down their lives during the World War 1 while protecting the city from the powerful forces of the Ottoman Empire.
  • PM had said before visiting the site that the place was the final resting place for 44 of the Indian soldiers who had sacrificed their lives during World War I to liberate the city.
  • The Indian Army commemorates September 23 every year as Haifa Day to pay its respects to the two Indian Cavalry Regiments that helped liberate the city. In the autumn of 1918, the Indian Brigade was a part of the Allied Forces sweeping northwards through Palestine in what is seen as the last great cavalry campaign in history.
  • Captain Aman Singh Bahadur and Dafadar Jor Singh were awarded the Indian Order of Merit and Captain Anop Singh and 2nd Lt Sagat Singh were awarded the Military Cross (MC) as recognition for their bravery in this battle.
  • Major Dalpat Singh (MC) is known as the ‘Hero of Haifa’ for his critical role in the liberation of the city. He was awarded a military cross for his bravery.
  • In 2012, the municipality of Haifa decided to immortalise the sacrifices made by Indian soldiers, many of whom are buried in the cemetery, by including their stories in school curricula.
  • The municipality also decided to organise a ceremony every year to commemorate the role of the Indian Army in liberating the city from Turks after almost 402 years.

Sources– The Times Of India, NDTV.