‘’Paper 2-GS-II, Topic: International Relations – India-Japan Cooperation to Develop Chabahar Port in Iran

Indo-Japan civil nuclear cooperation agreement is still on track: Kenji Hiramatsu


   What you need to know:

  • India is open to support from Japan in developing Chabahar port in southeastern Iran, a senior Indian diplomat said on Friday.
  • The Indian diplomat was responding to a senior Japanese diplomat who, while dwelling on the possibilities of Japanese collaboration with India in the development of Chabahar port, had said that Japan with its experience of developing ports with railway and road connectivity can play a significant role in the development of the port.
  • The event was on “Confluence” of interests of India and Japan as “Maritime Democracies”.
  • The Asian geopolitics over infrastructure development has further intensified as India and Japan have decided to cooperate for developing the Chabahar port in Iran amid China’s vigorous push to promote its One Belt One Road (OBOR) initiative.


  • India aims to connect the land locked Central Asian countries and Afghanistan to South Asia through the Chabahar port bypassing Pakistan. New Delhi has signed a trilateral agreement with Iran and Afghanistan to invest USD 500 million for developing the Chabahar port.
  • The port has been linked to Afghanistan and Central Asian countries through Zaranj-Delaram highway. Tokyo’s technical expertise in industrial complex and port development will help New Delhi in early completion of the project as it was announced in 2003.
  • India and Japan aim to promote collaborative and multilateral approach for regional connectivity as the two countries agreed to work for peace and prosperity in the Indo-Pacific region in 2015.
  • Co-development of Chabahar port marks the beginning of India-Japan cooperation at regional level in addition to their already existing cooperation at bilateral and multilateral levels.

   Source: Business Standard


‘’Paper 2-GS-II, Topic: International Organizations – ADB developing New Delhi as hub for South Asia operations

Asian Development Bank chief Takehiko Nakao says the institution has started out-posting staff for private sector operations


   What is important to know:

  • The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is developing New Delhi as a regional hub for its operations in South Asia to speed up decision-making and reduce time lag in implementing projects in the region.
  • Out-posting staff for private sector operations and also for procurement has already started.
  • ADB will continue to pursue reforms to improve responsiveness and to streamline procedures.
  • ADB has just approved a new procurement framework to reduce overall procurement time, improve the quality of procurement outcomes, and strengthen the procurement delivery system.

   What it does or will do:

  • It could reduce the time required to approve a proposal as well as the time lag between approval and disbursement of loans.
  • It will continue to strengthen resident missions by providing them greater authority, and out-posting more staff.
  • It will uphold the highest levels of environmental and social safeguards in all our projects and increasingly use country systems.
  • ADB will give more emphasis on climate resilient agriculture, better farm production technologies, improved value chain management and creation of better marketing infrastructure for the farm produce.
  • It will set up facilities in India for manufacture of rolling stock for metro rail projects.
  • In addition to sectors like energy, urban development and transportation, ADB needs to focus more on affordable renewable energy.

   Source: Livemint


‘’Paper 4-GS-III, Topic: Science and Technology – Where energy is waiting to be tapped

    The intermittent solar & wind power has triggered exploration of unusual sources of electricity



  • Viewed against the backdrop of the energy history of the country, the main-streaming of wind and solar has been rather sudden. Just three years ago, few would have thought of them as meaningful sources of energy. Today, they account for 7% of the country’s electricity production — small still, but firmly set to grow, by at least ten percentage points in the next five years.
  • There is a lot more juice left in wind and solar than has been squeezed out today. Newer materials such as perovskites that can replace silicon are showing up, giving solar panels more bang for the buck; the cost of offshore wind is falling dramatically so as to open up literally new areas — the seas.

   How the tapping ocean works:

  • There are three subsets of this 24×7 energy source: Waves, tides and underwater currents.
  • The bobbing movement of the waters is another source of energy. The technology is basically to let buoys to move up and down, compressing air or pumping water which could then turn the turbines.
  • Fuel cell: Fuel cells are devices that split the hydrogen atoms into protons and electrons and get the electrons to flow through a circuit — flow of electrons is electricity.
  • The search for clean energy has not stopped with wind and solar. A phalanx of sources is waiting to be tapped into. Some—like Helium-3 from the moon—are on the very edge of science. But there are others that are not so far away. Swing the searchlight around, you see three that are more promising that the rest.

   Source: News United