‘’Paper 3-GS-II, Topic: Apex Court; significant provision, amendments and features – Supreme Court plans to go paperless

                                No more fat appeals, SC to go digital in 200 days: CJI Khehar


  • Every year, around 70,000 appeals get filed in the SC and each one runs into over 100 pages.
  • Every year around 70 lakh pages of white sheets, slightly bigger than an A4, get used in petitions filed in the SC.

   What is new:

  • Supreme Court will electronically pick up records from trial courts and high courts. There will be no need for appellants to file those records. The appeal just has to state the grounds on which the petitioner is challenging a judgment in the SC.
  • Every year around 70 lakh pages of white sheets, the ones used in the SC are slightly bigger than an A4 sheet, get used in petitions filed in the SC. If the CJI’s assertions come true and even if the appeals get reduced by two-thirds of their present size, leaving the rest for stating the grounds of challenge, then the country would save nearly 50 lakh pages every year and resultantly, a large number of trees from getting axed.

   What brought in:

  • This impromptu revelation about the SC going digital came from the CJI when senior advocate Indira Jaising mentioned a writ petition filed by her seeking laying down of transparent and fair guidelines for designating lawyers as senior advocates by the SC. Less than 24 hours ago, a bench headed by Justice Ranjan Gogoi had referred the matter to the CJI, saying the issue required adjudication by a larger bench.
  • In this background, breaking away from tradition probably came easy for Justice Khehar, who assuaged Jaising’s fear that making a large number of bar associations parties to her petition would consume a lot of paper and prove deleterious for the environment by saying the court would soon go digital.kj

   Source: Times of India


‘’Paper 3-GS-II, Topic: Social Sector/Services relating to Health – Multidrug-resistant TB will rise in India

1/8 of cases in India will be multi-drug-resistant by 2040, says Lancet paper on high-burden countries


  • A study published online in the Lancet Infectious Disease journal has forecast an increase in drug-resistant tuberculosis cases in the four high-burden countries, including India, and suggested that person-to-person transmission will become the engine that drives drug-resistant tuberculosis in these countries.
  • By 2040, 12.4 per cent, or an eighth, of TB cases in India will be multi-drug-resistant, up from 7.9 per cent in 2000, says the study, by an international team of scientists. In the other three high-burden countries, multi-drug resistance will rise to 32.5 per cent of all cases in Russia, 8.9 per cent in the Philippines and 5.7 per cent in South Africa, respectively up from 24.8, 6 and 2.5 per cent in 2000.

   Worldwide case:

  • Globally, an estimated 10.4 million new cases of tuberculosis and 1.8 million deaths related to tuberculosis disease occurred that year. Multi-drug-resistant TB accounted for 480,000 cases, and 9.5% of these cases were estimated to be extremely drug resistant.
  • Of the multi-drug-resistant cases, one in 10 are expected to be extensively drug-resistant by 2040 — 9% in Russia and the Philippines, 8.9% in India, and 8.5% in South Africa — according to the study, based on a mathematical model using WHO data.
  • The study also estimates how many of these drug-resistant cases would be a result of non-resistant strains acquiring resistance during treatment. It predicts that fewer such cases will be caused by strains acquiring resistance — reducing from around 30% of cases of multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis in 2000 to 20-25% in 2040, and 80% of cases of extensively drug-resistant disease in 2000, to 50% in 2040.

   For India:

  • For India, the model is simplistic because it ignores the huge proportion of TB that is managed in the private sector with suboptimal diagnostics, widespread antibiotic abuse, and limited capacity to ensure adherence among TB patients. So, unless something is done about improving quality of TB care in the private sector, the situation for India might be worse than what is predicted by this modeling study.
  • According to health ministry figures, India has 2.8 million cases of TB every year. Of these, 2.8 per cent are new cases of multi-drug resistance while another 11.2 are acquired cases of multi-drug resistance.

   Source: Indian Express


‘’Paper 4-GS-III, Topic: Addition to Railways & its Infrastructure – Rail regulator to define performance standards

Standards will provide guidance on Quantity & Quality of Service

   What you need to know:

  • India’s first rail regulator, Rail Development Authority (RDA), would not just look at tariff structures for passenger and freight operations but also set standards of performance and efficiency that would be enforceable under the Railways Act.
  • RDA can define standards of performance and efficiency; such standards would be notified as rules under the Railway Act to give a binding force upon acceptance.
  • The regulator will set “standards for efficiency and performance for consumer satisfaction in both passenger and freight” and will also be authorized to check for deviations and suggest remedial measures.
  • The regulator will provide guidance on quantity and quality of service provided to passengers. These may include setting standards including hours of service, frequency of trains, capacity per coach, cleanliness level, and quality of water, food, furnishing and linen.

   Regulator’s structure:

  • The Railway Board also defined the structure of the RDA with a Chairman along with three members each for tariff, public private partnership and efficiency, standards and benchmarking.
  • The regulator will, however, not involve itself in policy making of the Indian Railways, operations and maintenance of the rail system, financial management, setting technical standards and compliance of safety standards.

   Source: Rail News