‘’Paper 4-GS-III, Topic: Development of Science – Pneumonia vaccine to be part of immunisation drive

With the introduction of PCV 13, we will able to help protect India’s birth cohort of 26 million children from the leading cause of child deaths in the country


  • Drug firm Pfizer today said its pneumonia vaccine PCV 13 has been included in India’s immunisation programme in select states.The company’s 13-valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV 13) has been selected for immunisation program in certain states.
  • Globally, pneumococcal disease is one of the leading causes of deaths in children younger than 5 years of age. In India, according to industry sources, around 1.05 lakh children died of pneumococcal pneumonia in 2010.
  • The PCV 13 vaccine is the most widely used pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the world, with deployment in over 100 countries’ immunisation program. In India, PCV 13 will be introduced in a multi-dose vial format.

   Access to all:

  • Our goal is to ensure that no child dies in the country from vaccine preventable diseases. We stand committed to reducing child deaths and providing a healthier future to our children. While these vaccines in the private sector were accessible to only those who could afford them, by making them available under the UIP, the government is ensuring equitable access to those who need them the most, the underprivileged and underserved.
  • Pneumococcal disease is the leading cause of vaccine-preventable deaths in children under five years of age globally and in India. India accounts for nearly 20% of global pneumonia deaths in this age group.
  • The three-dose pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) will be rolled out in Mandi, Himachal Pradesh, six districts of Uttar Pradesh and 17 districts of Bihar as a part of the first phase. The vaccine will give protection against 13 types of pneumococcal bacteria which cause pneumonia disease.

   India’s burden:

  • Every year, 59 lakh children die worldwide before their fifth birthday, of them 9% die due to diarrhoea, 16% due to pneumonia. India shoulders the highest burden of child pneumonia and diarrhoea deaths with Nigeria, Pakistan, Democratic Republic of Congo and Angola taking up the next four spots.
  • Currently, the vaccine is being rolled out to approximately 21 lakh children in Himachal Pradesh and parts of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh in the first phase. This will be followed by introduction in Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan next year, and eventually across the country. There are over 90 different types of pneumococcal bacteria which cause a range of problems.

   Source: India Times


‘’Paper 4-GS-III, Topic: Environmental Degradation & Impact – Threat to African lion

African lions under same threats as extinct sabre-toothed tigers faced


  • The seven big cats that went extinct towards the end of the last Ice Age, including several sabre-toothed cats, are those which lost the greatest proportion of their prey, according to an international team of scientists who believe the African Lion and Sunda clouded leopard are next on the list.

   What is important to know:

  • A new study led by scientists from the universities of Sussex, Oxford’s Wildlife Conservation Research Unit (WildCru), Aarhus and Goteborg has assessed whether Ice Age extinction trends could be applied to populations of big cat species now, by using a new global database FelidDIET.
  • The team researched the cause of extinction of seven large cats from the Ice Age: four different types of sabre-toothed cats, the cave and American lions and the American cheetah. They discovered that if these animals were alive today on average, only 25 percent of their preferred prey species would still remain across their former natural ranges — the majority have gone extinct, partly due to human pressure. The team believes this devastating loss of prey species was a major contributing factor to the extinction of these big cats.
  • The team has also used the database to work out whether a similar decline in the availability of prey species now could lead to the demise of some of the world’s most well-known big cat species. They have discovered that if all the currently threatened and declining prey species within big cat natural ranges were to go extinct, only 39 percent of the African lion’s prey and 37 percent of Sunda clouded leopard’s would remain.
  • Worryingly the researchers believe that if this prey loss trend continues this poses ‘a high risk of extinction’ to these two big cat species in particular. They also report that prey diversity within the geographical ranges of tiger, leopard and cheetah puts them at risk too.
  • Where prey species have, or are likely to become extinct, this poses a serious risk to the big cat species which feed on them and we now know this is the continuation of an unhappy trend which began during the last Ice Age.
  • The Churchillian aphorism that those that fail to learn from history are doomed to repeat it was painfully in mind when we saw how many of the prey of lions and East Africa and of clouded leopards in Indo-Malaya look set to go down the same drain down which their counterparts in other regions have already been flushed.

   Source: Science Daily


‘’Paper 4-GS-III, Topic: Role of Nation/State to create Internal Security – NCRB organized a National Workshop on Crime Data Analytics

Topics on Data Analytics, Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, Dash boarding and its possible deployment in Police domain were thoroughly discussed

   Brief on Workshop:

  • Delegates from State Police (Himachal Pradesh, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Delhi, Karnataka, Jharkhand, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Mumbai & Pune Commissionerates), CAPFs (ITBP, BSF, Assam Rifles, SSB), Industry, ISRO (ADRIN), NTRO, IIT Mumbai, BITS Pilani participated in the meeting.
  • Ish Kumar, Director, NCRB described origin, activities and future roadmaps of NCRB. He suggested that the ample Data generated in CCTNS can now be used for Crime Analytics and NCRB will lead efforts in this regard to establish Data Analysis ecosystem in the State Police Forces. NCRB had played a significant role in computerization of State Police Forces by providing hardware and software in CCIS, CIPA and CCTNS project.
  • Shri N. Ramachandran, President, Indian Police Foundation (IPF) emphasised on the evidence based data driven practices with crime data analytics tools for predictive policing. He also suggested that NCRB should take a leadership position in establishing itself as pioneer in the field for Police.
  • Shri Raghu Raman, former CEO of NATGRID shared his experience about the power of Data Analytics to combat crime in strategic level and better policing with some live examples from other domains. Other delegates highlighted problems in collecting quality data, integrity of data, limitation of dynamic search, crime mapping with over-policing, crime displacement etc.
  • Special Commissioner of Delhi Police spoke about application of IT in Crime Data Capturing and Analysis by Delhi Police. He emphasised on integration of all data from CCTVs and Apps, Social Media Analysis and Control Room. He also spoke about the analysis of non-crime related calls terminating at Police Control. Scientist from ADRIN, strategic unit of ISRO, presented “Crime Mapping Analysis and Predictive Systems” (CMAPS) developed for Delhi Police.
  • Delegates shared the problems like poor data quality, non-availability of tools and manpower which needs to be overcome to adopt the Data Analytics Framework. The data emerging out of Control rooms and Non-cognisable Crime should also be analyzed. The work done by field level officers in field of IT should be given Platform by NCRB to showcase their products and ideas for national absorption.
  • Representatives from IIT Bombay and BITS Pilani, who were representing the academia, presented the new inventions done in the area of Data Analytics. The innovation of video compression was suggested to be taken forward with Police and CAPFs for enhancing their surveillance capabilities.

   Source: Press Information Bureau