GS Paper I- History and Geography of the World and Society.

World’s Oldest Living Person And The Last Living Subject Of Queen Victoria, Violet Mosse-Brown Dies Aged 117 In Jamaica.


  • The world’s oldest living person and the last living subject of Queen Victoria, Violet Mosse-Brown, has passed away at the age of 117 in Jamaica.
  • Brown is also the first verified super-centenarian from Jamaica. In 2015, she was given a letter by Queen Elizabeth II in honor of her 115th birthday.
  • Brown was born on March 10 in 1900, 67 years before Jamaica was founded, when it was still part of the British Empire.


Highlights Of The Development–

  • Better known by family and friends as Aunt V, Brown officially claimed the title on July 27, 2017 after she became 117 years and 139 days old, the Guinness World Records said.
  • Brown died on September 15, 2017 after being diagnosed with dehydration and irregular heartbeat.
  • Brown has seven children in total, four of whom are still living. Her first child, Harland Fairweather, died on April 19 this year at the age of 97 years and 4 days. She shared another record for longevity with her 96-year-old child – the Highest combined age for a parent and child (living). Harland Fairweather was born in Jamaica on 15 April 1920, which meant that he and his mother had a combined age of 213 years 345 days in March earlier this year, Guinness World Records said.
  • The previous oldest living person, Emma Morano, passed away on April 15 this year, aged 117 years, 137 days. The Oldest person ever to have lived is also female, Jeanne Calment from France who lived to 122 years and 164 days.
  • There is no current record holder for Oldest living male. Guinness World Records is consulting expertsto verify the potential successor for both the female and male titles.
  • According to the list of living super-centenarians maintained by the Gerontology Research Group, Nabi Tajima from Japan is now the oldest living person, aged 117 years and 46 days.

Sources- The Indian Express.


GS Paper II- International Relations.

Dharmendra Pradhan Co-Chairs 13th Inter-Governmental Commission Meeting In Kazakhstan.



  • The Union Minister for Petroleum and Natural Gas and Skill Development and Entrepreneurship, Dharmendra Pradhan, visits Astana, Kazakhstan from September 19 – 20,  2017, to co-chair the 13th Meeting of Inter-Governmental Commission (IGC).
  • Kanat Bozumbayev, the Minister of Energy of Kazakhstan, has also co-chaired the meeting from the Kazakh side.
  • The IGC meeting aims to follow up on the agenda set between India and Kazakhstan during the two visits of Prime Minister Narendra Modi to Kazakhstan in July 2015 and June 2017.


Highlights Of The Development-

  • During his visit, Pradhan discussed various issues and ideas for stepping up the cooperation in sectors including the energy, trade, economic, investment, transport and connectivity, agriculture, information technology, space, healthcare and cultural spheres between the two countries with his counterpart.
  • The two sides are also expected to finalise a strategy and roadmap for expanding trade, economic and investment cooperation between the two countries.
  • Pradhan was accompanied by a delegation comprising senior officials from Ministries/Departments, including Petroleum and Natural Gas, Mines, Electronics and IT, Tourism, ISRO, Department of Atomic Energy, Indian Council of Agricultural Research and also few high level executives from ONGC Videsh and Railway Board.
  • The delegations discussed the possibilities of expanding cooperation in E&P of hydrocarbons and investments infrastructure projects in oil & gas sector. In the nuclear energy sector both sides agreed to work on application of nuclear science in the areas of health and agriculture.
  • They explored possibility of expanding the International North-South Transport Corridor (INSTC) by linking it to the Kazakhstan-Turkmenistan-Iran rail link. INSTC has already become operational by agreeing to conduct a dry run feasibility study on the Railway Link. The sides also agreed to develop and deepen bilateral relations in the field of agriculture, mining and civil aviation sector.
  • Kazakhstan is strategically located between Europe and Asia and offers enormous business opportunities for investments. The country is rich in mineral resources, such as uranium, oil and natural gas. Both leaders agreed to collaborate in the oil and gas sector for mutual benefit and further strengthen the engagement by addressing issues of concerns to Indian investors, particularly in Kazakh hydrocarbon sector.

Sources- OdishaDiary.


GS Paper III- Technology.

Airbus’ Perlan 2 Glider Sets A New World Altitude Record As It Soars To 52,000 Feet Without An Engine.



  • Airbus’ Perlan 2 aircraft has made history, setting a new world altitude record for gliding.
  • The aircraft soared to an incredible 52,000 feet over the Patagonia region of Argentina, without the support of an engine.
  • The flight takes Airbus one step closer to its ultimate goal of sending an engine-less aircraft to the edge of space.


Highlights Of The Development-

  • The flight took place on 3rd September, 2017, with the Perlan 2 setting off from El Calafate in Argentina.
  • Ed Warnock, CEO of the Perlan Project, said that they are celebrating an amazing victory for aerospace innovation and scientific discovery and they are thankful to all the volunteers and sponsors whose years of tireless dedication have made this achievement possible.
  • The Perlan 2 glider is a pressurised sailplane designed to ride updrafts called ‘mountain waves’ that, in certain regions near the north and south poles, can reach into the stratosphere.
  • For a brief period in August and September every year, the weather in the Andes mountains near El Calafate is often just right to generate these elusive stratospheric mountain waves.
  • Perlan 2 is designed to ride these waves up to 90,000 feet without requiring the two-person crew.

Sources- Long Room.