‘’Paper 3-GS-II, Topic: Development of services relating to Health – 24 varieties of citrus fruits developed

Institute uses Israeli scientific techniques to produce disease-free plants

    Brief:

  • As many as 24 new varieties of oranges and citrus fruits are being developed at the Centre of Excellence for Citrus Fruits at Nanta near Kota in Rajasthan.
  • The project, launched in 2014-15, has helped graft nearly 50,000 plants every year. The prominent varieties of citrus fruits developed at the centre are Clementine, Michale Daisy, Kinnow, Nagpur Mandarin, Nagpur Seedless and Jaffa.
  • Spread over 6.8 hectares, the state-of-the art centre also supplies fruits for export.
  • Principal Agriculture and Horticulture Secretary Neelkamal Darbari said the technology adopted at the centre, such as mulch, drip and ridge bed system for irrigation, was based on Israeli scientific inputs.

   Irrigation management:

  • The centre has largely achieved its objective of producing disease-free and high-quality planting material,” she said. In addition to promotion As many as 24 new varieties of oranges and citrus fruits are being developed at the Centre of Excellence for Citrus Fruits at Nanta near Kota in Rajasthan.
  • The project, launched in 2014-15, has helped graft nearly 50,000 plants every year. The prominent varieties of citrus fruits developed at the centre are Clementine, Michale Daisy, Kinnow, Nagpur Mandarin, Nagpur Seedless and Jaffa.
  • Spread over 6.8 hectares, the state-of-the of mechanisation in orchard operations, the centre aims at spreading awareness about post-harvest and value addition technology and developing irrigation management techniques.
  • Dabari said that the potential of post-harvest processing projects would be explored by investors at the Global Rajasthan Agritech Meet (GRAM) beginning in Kota on Wednesday.
  • The Agriculture Department is considering marketing the centre’s produce as “Raj Santara”. Since the Jhalawar district in Kota is the largest producer of oranges in the State, there was an immense scope for packaging and branding operations of locally sourced fruits, said Ms. Darbari.
  • The centre has a primary nursery for plant grafting, a second nursery for budding, a protected mother block for nurturing mother plants.

    Source: Vasundhararaje.in

‘’Paper 2-GS-I, Topic: History & Geography of World & Society – Iran votes for reform

President Rouhani’s challenges, domestically and with the U.S. and Arab neighbours, are just beginning

    A difficult campaign:

  • In 2013, Mr. Rouhani had campaigned and won on a platform that focused on bringing sanctions to an end, which he was able to achieve in July 2015 with the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action ( JCPOA), a nuclear agreement concluded with the P-5 + 1. The sanctions relief has had a positive impact on the economy with oil exports up and GDP growth hitting 6% last year though expectations were higher.
  • Opinion polls had favoured Mr. Rouhani, because Mr. Raisi, though close to the Supreme Leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, was considered a relative newcomer to politics.

   Rouhani’s constraints:

  • The key power centre is the Supreme Leader who is appointed by the Assembly of Experts and in turn appoints the heads of radio and TV, the armed forces and the IRGC, the Supreme National Security Council, the 51-member Expediency Council and the higher judiciary.

   Dealing with Trump:

  • During the election campaign, Mr. Trump had called it the ‘worst deal ever’ and threatened to tear it up as soon as he was elected! Subsequently, he seems to have modified his position, realizing perhaps that it is not just a bilateral agreement with Iran but also includes Russia, China, the U.K., France, Germany and the European Union. In April, the Trump administration certified that Iran was abiding by its obligations but Secretary of State Rex Tillerson added that a 90- day policy review would be undertaken in view of ‘Iran’s alarming ongoing provocations’.

   The Saudi factor:

  • Perhaps the most troubling problem is the new embrace of Saudi Arabia that was in evidence during Mr. Trump’s visit. It raises the prospects of greater U.S. involvement in the war in Yemen and can push relations with Iran into a confrontation. In 2016, there were 19 ‘incidents at sea’ between U.S. and Iranian vessels in the Persian Gulf. The most serious was in January 2016 when the IRGC held two U.S. vessels and 10 servicemen, accused of trespassing in Iranian waters. The crisis was resolved within hours, thanks to some quick phone conversations between U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry and Mr. Zarif. That link is missing today.

 Source: Hindu

‘’Paper 3-GS-II, Topic: Important International Institution & their mandate – No room for India yet in NSG: China

Beijing says its position on non-NPT members’ participation in the group has not changed

    What is important to know:

  • China on Monday said it would oppose India’s unilateral entry into the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG), pending the consensus on membership of nuclear weapon states which had not signed the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT). The 48-nation NSG is expected to hold its plenary in June in Bern, Switzerland, where the topic of New Delhi’s entry is expected to be discussed. New Delhi had formally applied for NSG membership in May last year, but China has consistently blocked India’s bid, pointing to the need for devolving universally applicable membership criteria for all countries which have not signed the NPT, but had become nuclear weapon states.

   Pakistan’s status:

  • Pakistan, China’s close ally, is the other declared nuclear weapon state which has not signed the NPT. The NSG controls the global exports of nuclear technology and material to ensure that atomic energy is used only for peaceful purposes. The meeting was a maiden attempt since the NSG’s inception in 1975 to formally take up non-NPT states’ participation “in an open and transparent manner”. However, the statement reiterated China’s insistence on linking NSG membership to the NPT — a formulation that rules out India’s membership.

   Non-discriminatory:

  • China maintains that any formula [for membership] worked out should be nondiscriminatory and applicable to all non-NPT states; without prejudice to the core values of the NSG and the effectiveness, authority and integrity of the international non-proliferation regime with the NPT as its cornerstone; and without contradicting the customary international law in the field of non-proliferation.

   Indian stance:

  • India has underscored that NPT membership is not essential for joining the NSG, as was illustrated in the case with France, which became a member of the NSG without signing the NPT. Highly placed sources said that at the discussions with the Chinese, India insisted that the NSG was not a nonproliferation group but an “export control” mechanism. Therefore, India’s NSG bid should be de-linked from the criterion of NPT membership.

    Source: Defense News