Paper 3-GS-II, Topic: Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.

China boosts naval power with new aircraft carrier

To be noted:

  • China has launched its second aircraft carrier, marking an incremental rise in its capacity to project power in the West Pacific.
  • The carrier, called Type 001-A before it acquires a formal name, was transferred from dry dock into the water at a launch ceremony that started at about 9 a.m. at the Dalian shipyard of the China Shipbuilding Industry Corporation.
  • Fan Changlong, Vice-Chairman of the powerful Central Military Commission (CMC), chaired the launch ceremony.
  • The new carrier, which is likely to be christened Shandong, will supplement the Liaoning — China’s first aircraft carrier that was purchased from Ukraine and commissioned in 2012.
  • The Type 001-A is expected to enter service of the People’s Liberation Army (Navy), or PLAN, by 2020, following other time-consuming preparations such as the debugging of all onboard devices and sea trials.

  • The new carrier will have a displacement of 50,000 tonnes, which means that the Type 001-A will be a mid-sized carrier, significantly smaller than the super-carriers operated by the U.S., which are above 70,000 tonnes.

Star point:

  • The new carrier is likely to operate home-developed Shenyang J-15 fighter jets.
  • It’s impossible for China to complete the construction of three carrier fighting groups by 2020 based on current shipbuilding capabilities and other technical reasons.
  • China had a limited capacity to produce aircraft carriers as it had only two yards —
  • one in Dalian and
  • second in Shanghai’s Jiangnan shipyard.

Source: Indian Express

Paper 4-GS-III, Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

Sustainable sector is a $1 trillion opportunity’

Important details:

  • India has the potential for $1 trillion worth of business opportunities and 72 million job opportunities by 2030 for companies working in the sustainable development space.
  • Especially in sectors such as food and agriculture, energy, construction, and healthcare, according to Lise Kingo, CEO and Executive Director of the United Nations Global Compact.
  • The United Nations Global Compact (UNGC) is an initiative by the global body to encourage private sector companies to do more in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals, the deadline for which is less than 5,000 days away.
  • More than 50% of the progress towards the global (Sustainable Development) Goals will come from India.
  • The report shows that there is $1 trillion worth of market opportunities for companies working in the sustainable area in India and employment generation of 72 million by 2030.
  • The major areas where these gains are possible include food and agriculture, energy, cities, health, and construction.
  • Look at inequality, where the top small section commands most of the wealth. This affects the spending power of the bulk of the population, which hurts the companies.
  • The same can be argued with climate change and environmental effects. Companies can’t first do their production and then look at the environment.

Highlighted example:

  • Adidas as a company is trying to do its part in helping the environment. Adidas has made a sports shoe made of the waste plastics collected from the oceans, which is increasingly becoming a major pollution problem.

Source: The Hindu

Paper 3-GS-II, Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health

Doctors worry about quality as Center pushs for generic

Arguments presented:

  • Following the Centre’s advisory to physicians to prescribe drugs with generic names, doctors across the country are worried that any change in drug — especially for patients with chronic illnesses and critical care — may risk patients not getting the full benefit of a particular drug.

  • Doctors argue there is no concrete evidence to show that generic drugs are equal to branded drugs, with respect to bioavailability, potency, efficacy and impurity content.
  • Doctors said there can be complications and some of the ailments and diseases can go out of control.
  • The doctors question who will be held responsible if any generic medicine has an adverse affect on the patient.
  • Some of the branded drugs are available at a lower cost than generic drugs as they have been price capped under the National List of Essential Medicines (NLEM).
  • Pointing out that the bioavailability of a generic drug molecule is not assured by quality control or clinical trials. Also, the same company manufacturing a branded drug also manufactures a generic drug means that there is a shift in quality.

Generic Manufacture:

  • A senior doctor of neurology from the All India Institute of Medical Sciences said while the concept of reducing the cost is welcome, stringent quality checks of generic drugs are missing in India.
  • Anywhere else in the world, generics undergo scrutiny and a particular drug is manufactured by a single company. Here, tens of companies manufacture the same drug and the final call will be taken by the chemist, who will use the opportunity of selling the drug for which he gets the highest margin.
  • Companies manufacturing generics see the composition of a particular drug and manufacture them without any research and clinical trials. It is a reverse process and there is no quality check.
  • IMA told that the concern of the medical profession regarding spurious and substandard drugs is yet to be addressed and more such drugs might get into the market under the guise of generic drugs.
  • The government has only around 1,800 drug inspectors for the entire country, which is grossly inadequate. Indiscriminate dispensing of antibiotics and other prescription drugs by doctors not qualified in modern medicine, quacks, and by Over The Counter Sales has led to emergence of serious resistant micro-organisms. Strict implementation of the existing laws should suffice in this regard.

Source: Times of India