GS Paper II – Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary Ministries

What’s the validity of common law marriage in India, asks HC?

What’s Happening-

  • Following a petition by two refugees from Myanmar seeking to get their marriage registered under the Indian Christian Marriage Act, the Delhi High Court has sought to know the validity of common-law marriage in India.

Key Points discussed were:


  • “What is the validity of common-law marriage here? Are they valid in India?” Justice Sanjeev Sachdeva of Delhi HC sought to know.

Christian Marriage Act:

  • The court was hearing a petition by the refugees, both citizens of Myanmar, who have been unsuccessful to get their marriage, which was solemnised as per the Chin Burmese Christian customs, registered under the Indian Christian Marriage Act.
  • The couple tied the knot in 2013 as per Chin Burmese Christian customs in presence of their elders in India. They sought to get their marriage registered, but in vain.

Not valid:

  • The marriage registrar turned down their request on grounds that they’re refugees and their marriage being a customary union was not valid under the Indian Christian Marriage Act.
  • In the petition, filed through advocate Dhiraj A. Philip, the couple relied on Section 4 of the Indian Christian Marriage Act to say that solemnisation and registration of marriage is guaranteed to all Christians and not merely to Indian citizens.

Petition and Background:

  • Petitioners T. Olive and Nili Fnu fled persecution by the military junta in Myanmar and reached India, where they were granted refugee status.
  • Mr. Olive was abducted in July 2010 while on his way to a hospital with his father in Myanmar.
  • He fled his captors and walked for four days before reaching Mizoram. He then travelled to Delhi from Guwahati before being granted refugee status.

Move to the U.S.

Ms. Fnu’s family was forced to leave Myanmar after an attack on her father in 2008. While she stayed in India from 2011 to 2013, the family were granted third country resettlement to the United States. Before moving, she married Mr. Olive and gave birth to their son in the U.S. in 2014. On her return to India on a tourist visa in August 2016, the couple approached the Registrar to have their marriage registered, but in vain. The petitioners said they’ve been left in the lurch as the family can’t be united without a registered marriage and Mr. Olive won’t have easy access to his son in the U.S.

GS Paper II –  Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.

Interceptor missile test successful

What’s Happening-
The Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) successfully carried out a test of an interceptor missile, further validating the reliability of the under-development, two-layered Ballistic Missile Defence (BMD) in shooting down enemy missiles.

Key Points discussed were:

  • The endo-atmospheric missile, which can intercept missiles at ranges of 15-30 km was launched from the Abdul Kalam Island off the Odisha coast in response to an incoming ‘enemy’ missile which was launched from the Integrated Test Range (ITR) in Chandipur.
  • Research Centre Imarat (RCI) of the DRDO which had played a role in the development of all strategic missiles has speared the design and development of the BMD programme.

Two missiles

  • The BMD consists of two interceptor missiles, the Prithvi Defence Vehicle (PDV) for exo-atmospheric ranges and the Advanced Area Defence (AAD) missile for endo-atmosphere or lower altitudes.
  • The BMD is critical to protect the country from the long-range ballistic missiles proliferating in the neighbourhood.
  • DRDO expects to have shield ready for deployment by 2022.


  • India has an active ABM development effort using indigenously developed and integrated radars, and indigenous missiles.
  • In November 2006, India successfully conducted the PADE (Prithvi Air Defence Exercise) .

The term “anti-ballistic missile” is a generic term conveying a system designed to intercept and destroy any type of ballistic threat.However it is commonly used for systems specifically designed to counter  (ICBMs).An anti-ballistic missile (ABM) is a  designed to counter.Ballistic missiles are used to deliver  or conventional  in a  flight .