GS Paper I- Indian Heritage and Culture.

Indian History Congress Begins At Jadavpur University In Kolkata.



  • The three-day long 78th session of the Indian History Congress began in Kolkata at the Jadavpur University campus on 28th December, 2017.
  • The Indian History Congress had six sections this time – Ancient India, Medieval India, Modern India, Countries Other than India, Archaeology and Contemporary India.
  • Eminent historians like Irfan Habib and Romila Thapar were the speakers on the occasion.

Highlights Of The Development–

  • West Bengal Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee addressed a session of the Indian History Congress on 29th December.
  • The aim of conducting Indian History Congress is for promotion and encouragement of the scientific study of Indian History, holding Congresses and publishing of the proceedings, bulletins, memoirs, journals and other works.

Sources- Business-Standard.


GS Paper II- International Relations.

India, Pak Exchange List Of Nuclear Installations Under 30-Year-Old Pact.



  • India and Pakistan on 1st January, 2018 exchanged a list of nuclear installations that the two countries have under a three-decade-old bilateral pact to maintain transparency and avoid attacking each other’s nuclear facilities.
  • Officials from the two sides exchanged the list in New Delhi, the foreign ministry said in a statement.
  • The agreement on the “prohibition of attack against nuclear installations” was signed on December 31, 1988, and entered into force on January 27, 1991.

Highlights Of The Development-

  • According to the pact, India and Pakistan must exchange an updated list showing nuclear installations and facilities on January 1 every year. This exchange was the 27th consecutive exchange of the nuclear file — the first exchange took place on January 1, 1992.
  • In September 2017, India’s atomic chief Dr Sekhar Basu had told that thanks to new explorations, India can now call itself a uranium-endowed country. He said that when he joined the atomic energy programme they were told India has just about 60,000 tonnes of mineable uranium. But today the quantity has grown by four to give times. Government is fully supporting to make India uranium self-sufficient.
  • The locally mined uranium is supplied to generate electricity and also to power nuclear weapons capability. India currently has 22 operating nuclear power plants which have an installed capacity of 6,780 megawatts (MW). Of these, the two nuclear plants at Kudankulam in Tamil Nadu are run on uranium imported from Russia.
  • Russia will continue supplying uranium for the entire 60-year life of the atomic plants. Each 1,000 MW reactor of Kudankulam needs several tonnes of uranium to function round-the-clock.


Sources- NDTV.


GS Paper III- Technology, Environment, Economic Development.

GAIL Commissions India’s Second Largest Rooftop Solar Plant In UP.



  • State-owned gas utility GAIL India Limited on 1st January, 2018 said it has commissioned the country’s second-largest rooftop solar power plant in UP.
  • The 5.76 megawatt peak (MWp) captive solar plant at its petrochemical complex at Pata in Uttar Pradesh will generate over 79 lakh kilowatt hour (KWh) of electricity.
  • The plant over the roofs of warehouses covers a total area of 65,000 square meters.
  • Tata Power Solar had in December 2015 commissioned a 12 MW solar rooftop project in Amritsar, which produces more than 150 lakh units of power annually and offset over 19,000 tonne of carbon emissions every year.


Highlights Of The Development-

  • India is planning to have 40 GW of rooftop photovoltaics (PV) by 2022. This is part of its target of having 175 GW of non-hydro renewables capacity by 2022 (made up of 60 GW onshore wind, 60 GW utility-scale solar, 10 GW bio-energy, 5 GW small hydro and 40 GW rooftop solar).
  • It currently has 60 GW of renewable energy capacity.
  • GAIL Chairman and Managing Director B C Tripathi said the company as a marketer of benign natural gas is thrilled to integrate captive solar PV towards achieving lower carbon footprint at its installations.
  • Captive solar power initiative of GAIL will reduce carbon emissions by 6,300 tonnes per annum and help India achieve climate goals, the statement said.
  • GAIL’s solar rooftop project is also a step under ‘Make in India’ with Indian vendors entrusted for manufacture, supply and execution.

Sources- Moneycontrol.