GS Paper I- Indian Heritage and Culture.

Magahi Writer Shesh Anand Madhukar Honoured With Sahitya Akademi Bhasha Samman Award.


  • Magahi writer Shesh Anand Madhukar, who has been working extensively for the development of the language, was honoured with this year’s (2018) Sahitya Akademi Bhasha Samman award on 31st January, 2018.
  • The second writer of Magahi language to be given the award, Madhurkar was conferred the award, comprising a Rs 1 lakh cheque and a memento, by Sahitya Akademi President Vishwanath Prasad Tiwari.
  • Sahitya Akademi currently honours writers from 24 regional languages, but Bhasha Samman identifies those languages which are equally spoken in different parts of the country. The award is an attempt to make the writers of other languages feel equally important.


Highlights Of The Development-

  • Sahitya Akademi Secretary K. Sreenivasarao said that a language is the identity of a community, it reflects its the culture and tradition. A regional language might be limited to a particular region but its effect is not restricted within a certain territorry. Bhasha Samman is an attempt to highlight such languages.
  • Madhukar started his career as a lecturer in Hindi at the BSK College, Methan in 1966 and eventually became a reader and professor at the Saint Columba College, Hazaribagh. He entered the field of literature in 1960 and since then he has immensly contributed in the enrichment of the language. His poems have been published in leading literary magazines.
  • In his long and illustrious career, he has a large body of work to his credit in both Magahi and Hindi. Some of his important works in Hindi are “Magahi Kavita Ke Bimb”, “Eklavya”, and “Bhagwan Birsa”.
  • In Magahi, his well-acclaimed works are “Eklavya” and “Magahi Bhulachal Hey”. His books have been included in the graduate and post-graduate syllabus of Vinoba Bhave University, Hazaribagh.

Sources- TOI.


GS Paper II- Governance, International Relations.

Karnataka Gets Asia’s Largest Drip Irrigation Project With Israeli Tech.



  • The largest drip irrigation project in Asia, the Ramthal project in Karnataka, executed by Megha Engineering and Infrastructures Limited (MEIL), has been commissioned.
  • Netafim, an Israeli corporation, has provided technical assistance for this project, which is based on the Israeli drip technology.
  • The Ramthal Marola project in the Bhagalkot district of Karnataka has been implemented by Krishna Bhagya Jala Nigam Limited. MEIL will be in charge of the operation and maintenance of this project for the next five years.
  • A total of 2,150 km length of pipeline was laid for this drip irrigation project.

Highlights Of The Development-

  • Due to insufficient water resources, farmers in Ramthal Marola region faced a lot of difficulties, especially those who had holdings at the edge of the ayacut.
  • While farmers with holdings closer to the ayacut had two crops every year, the farmers at the edge were not even able to cultivate one crop annually. Advantages MEIL, which successfully executed Pattisam project in Andhra Pradesh, implemented the drip irrigation project utilising the backwaters of Almatti project.
  • As a part of this drip irrigation scheme, every farmer will receive water through a cylinder installed in their respective farmlands. And the system enables them to mix fertilisers and pesticides in the cylinder.
  • This system will help in eliminating water wastage and the technology used in this project will also purify the wastage that flows in the backwaters of River Krishna.
  • The project is expected to reduce water usage, pesticide usage, costs and increase yields for the farmers. MEIL deployed specially manufactured pipes for longer duration use.
  • After the operations and maintenance period of five years, MEIL will hand over the project to the farmers. They would take over the management of the scheme. Every year farmers are to deposit ₹1,300 per acre in the bank. After five years, this amount will be used in case of requirements.

Sources- The Hindu Business Line.

GS Paper III- Environment.

Floating Treatment Wetland Launched To Purify Neknampur Lake In Hyderabad.


  • From a distance, it might appear as if hyacinth has consumed the Neknampur Lake in Hyderabad city. But a closer inspection will reveal that there is more to the water body than meets the eye. Gently floating on the surface is an artificial ‘island’ made of meticulously chosen plant species.
  • The island is a floating treatment wetland (FTW). Several plants on this FTW help clean the lake by absorbing nutrients such as excess nitrates and oxygen present in the water. They thus reduce the content of these chemicals, says Madhulika Choudhary, who heads Dhruvansh, an NGO.



Highlights Of The Development-

  • The FTW on Neknampur Lake was inaugurated on February 2, 2018, World Wetlands Day. Measuring 3,000 sq. ft., the FTW is a joint effort of Dhruvansh, the Hyderabad Metropolitan Development Authority, the Ranga Reddy district administration and other organisations. It has already been recognised by the India Book of Records as the largest FTW in the country.
  • Based on the soil-less hydroponics technique, the FTW comprises four layers. Floatable bamboo forms its base, over which Styrofoam cubicles are placed. The third layer consists of gunny bags. The final layer is of gravel. Hydroponics permits plants to grow only on sunlight and water. There is no need of soil. There are small holes at the bottom which facilitate the flow of nutrients from the water to the plants (biological uptake process), which are held upright by the gravel layer.
  • Cleaning agents planted on the FTW include vetivers, canna, cattalis, bulrush, citronella, hibiscus, fountain grass, flowering herbs, tulsi and ashvagandha.
  • Micro-organisms growing on the FTW and plant root systems break down and consume the organic matter in the water through microbial decomposition. The root systems filter out sediments and pollutants. The NGO claims that FTW is strong and can hold the weight of as many as four people. Compared to sewage treatment plants, this method is much cheaper.
  • Periodic biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) readings are taken from the Pollution Control Board. When the project began, the BOD was 27 mg/l. When the first small island (100 sq ft) was floated here eight months ago, we knew it was too little to clean up the entire lake. We are hoping that in four to six months there will be a fundamental change because of the FTW, Ms. Chaudhary says.

Sources- The Hindu.