GS Paper I- History and Geography of the World and Society.

India Tops List Of New TB Cases In 2016: Global TB Report.

Background-

  • India tops the list of seven nations, accounting for 64 per cent of the 10.4 million new tuberculosis (TB) cases worldwide in 2016, said a Global TB Report 2017, released by the World Health Organisation (WHO) on 30th October, 2017.
  • It is followed by Indonesia, China, Philippines, Pakistan, Nigeria and South Africa.
  • The report said that in 2016, there were an estimated 10.4 million new TB cases worldwide, 10 per cent of which were people living with HIV. Seven countries accounted for 64 per cent of the total burden, with India bearing the brunt.

 

Highlights Of The Development–

  • An estimated 1.7 million people died from TB, including nearly 400,000 co-infected with HIV, recording a drop by 4 per cent as compared to 2015.
  • Also, India along with China and Russia accounted for almost half of the 490,000, multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) cases registered in 2016.
  • Only one in five MDR-TB cases were started on treatment. India and China accounted for 39 per cent of the global gap. Treatment success remains low, at 54 per cent globally.
  • Mario Raviglione, Director of the WHO Global TB Programme, said that the sheer numbers of deaths and suffering speak for themselves – we are not accelerating fast enough.
  • According to the report, underreporting and under diagnosis of TB cases continues to be a challenge, especially in countries with large unregulated private sectors and weak health systems.
  • Of the estimated 10.4 million new cases, only 6.3 million were detected and officially notified in 2016, leaving a gap of 4.1 million. India, Indonesia and Nigeria accounted for almost half of this global gap, said the report, which also says that some of the initiatives and efforts by the global bodies have yielded good results and saved an estimated 53 million lives since 2000 and reduced the TB mortality rate by 37 per cent.
  • However, it said that despite these achievements, the latest picture is grim.
  • TB remains the top infectious killer in 2016. TB is also the main cause of deaths related to antimicrobial resistance and the leading killer of people with HIV, it said.
  • For TB care and prevention, investments in low- and middle-income countries fall almost $2.3 billion short of the $9.2 billion needed in 2017.
  • In addition, at least an extra $1.2 billion per year is required to accelerate the development of new vaccines, diagnostics, and medicines.
  • The report for the first time presents results from a new multi sectoral monitoring framework that identifies linkages with the TB epidemic across seven Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

Sources- Business-Standard.

GS Paper II- International Relations.

Goa Hosts Inaugural India-US Ocean Dialogue On 1st November, 2017.

Background

  • Goa hosted the inaugural India-US Ocean Dialogue beginning 1st November, 2017, the state department has said.
  • The dialogue, aimed at promoting sustainable development of the Blue Economy, is being hosted by the Indian Ministry of External Affairs at the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-National Institute of Oceanography (CSIR-NIO) in Goa.

 

Highlights Of The Development-

  • Acting Assistant Secretary of State for the Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs, Judith Garber led a high-powered American delegation.
  • Garber was joined by Dr. Sunil Kumar Singh, Director of CSIR-NIO, and Joint Secretary Americas Division, from the Ministry of External Affairs Munu Mahawar.
  • She participated in discussions about the Blue Economy, cooperation in sustainable marine resource management, fisheries governance, marine pollution, maritime law enforcement, and scientific research.
  • According to the World Bank, the Blue Economy is sustainable use of ocean resources for economic growth, improved livelihoods and jobs, and ocean ecosystem health.

 

Sources- The Indian Express.

GS Paper III- Economic Development.

India Jumps 30 Spots To 100 In World Bank’s Ease Of Doing Business Rankings.

Background

  • India has for the first time broken into the club of the 100 nations easiest to conduct business in, driven by ease of paying taxes, resolving the insolvency problem, access to credit, and protection of minority investors.
  • The World Bank’s ‘Doing Business 2018: Reforming to Create Jobs’ report, released on 31st October, 2017, showed India’s rank in ease of doing business jumped 30 places to 100 among 190 countries.
  • India’s rank was 130 a year ago, in 2016. India has also been adjudged the fifth best-performing nation globally in reforming the business environment. The country improved its rankings in six of the 10 sub-categories used by the World Bank to judge the climate of business.

 

 

Highlights Of The Development-

  • The report, covering the period from June 2, 2016 to June 1, 2017, ranked India top among the South Asian nations. India’s distance to frontier ratio, which tells how similar a country’s economic practices are to global best practices, has improved in nine out of 10 categories.
  • Also, it is now among the top 30 nations in three categories — getting electricity, securing credit and protecting minority investors. However, the World Bank noted that India lagged in areas such as starting a business, enforcing contracts, and dealing with construction permits.
  • Annette Dixon, vice-president for the South Asian region, World Bank said that the systematic reforms by the country in a persistent manner have paid off.
  • The multilateral agency has recognised reforms by the government in eight sub-categories. It said the country had adopted 37 reforms since 2003. Nearly half of these reforms have been implemented in the last four years.
  • The World Bank did not specifically ask respondents about the implications of the GST.
  • It said the tax was not an issue mentioned by a majority of the respondents but added that it would have a significant bearing on India’s rankings over the next few years.
  • In the protecting minority investors, India is now the fourth best country in the world, a jump from the 13th place last year (2016).
  • The passage and implementation of the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC) as well as setting up of sectoral regulators saw India climb 33 notches in the parameter for resolving insolvency.
  • In access to credit, the country improved its ranking by 15 places to 29. Here, too, the insolvency process played a key role.
  • However, despite hoping to bag a better rank in the securing construction permits category, India only improved to 181 from 184.

Sources- Business-Standard.