1.Global Hunger Index (The Financial Express, Down to Earth)
2.Digital police portal (PIB)
1.Global Hunger Index (The Financial Express, Down to Earth)
Synoptic line: It throws light on the findings of Global Hunger Report by IFPRI. (GS paper III)
- India stood a poor 100th among 119 countries in the Global Hunger Index (GHI) 2017 an indication of the vast prevalence of hunger and nutrition-related problems in the country. India’s score on the index calculated by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) was 31.4, worse than countries like North Korea and Iraq. It was one of the worst performers in Asia, better than only two other countries Afghanistan and Pakistan.
Global hunger index’s report
- According to the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), the country’s serious hunger level is driven by high child malnutrition and underlines need for stronger commitment to the social sector, India has a “serious” hunger problem. India stood at 97th position in last year’s rankings.
- The report ranked 119 countries in the developing world, nearly half of which have ‘extremely alarming,’ ‘alarming’ or ’serious’ hunger levels. The GHI ranks countries based on four key indicators: undernourishment, child mortality, child wasting and child stunting.
- The 12th edition of the index ranked countries in the developing world, nearly half of which have “extremely alarming”, “alarming” or “serious” hunger levels. India was placed in the “serious” category, and was one of the worst-performing countries within the category, followed closely by Africa South of the Sahara.
- Globally, the Central African Republic (CAR) has the highest score (reflecting the highest hunger level) in the report, and is the sole country in the index’s “extremely alarming” category. Several other countries including Sri Lanka, Mauritania, and Venezuela also have higher GHI scores in 2017 than in 2008, after witnessing falling scores in the previous two decades.
- The poor rank makes sense, as more than one-fifth (21 per cent) of the children, younger than the age of five, suffer from wasting, which means they weigh too little for their height and over a third of the children in this age group are too short for their age.
- The rate of wasting in the country has increased up from 20 per cent in 2005-2006 to 21 per cent in 2015-16. Only three other countries in the list (Djibouti, Sri Lanka, and South Sudan) have wasting above 20 per cent. The rate in India has not shown any substantial improvement over the past 25 years.
- Even with the massive scale up of national nutrition-focused programmes in India, drought and structural deficiencies have left large number of poor in India at risk of malnourishment in 2017. With a GHI score that is near the high end of the serious category, it is obvious that a high GDP growth rate alone is no guarantee of food and nutrition security for India’s vast majority.
- There is need to address the inequality in all its forms, if we are to meet the Sustainable Development Goal of Zero Hunger for everyone by 2030. Conflict and climate related shocks are at the heart of this problem. We must build the resilience of communities on the ground, but we must also bolster public and political solidarity internationally. Conflict and climate related shocks are at the heart of this problem. There is need to build the resilience of communities on the ground, but we must also bolster public and political solidarity internationally.
- However, India has made considerable improvement in reducing its child stunting rate, down 29% since 2000, but even that progress leaves India with a relatively high stunting rate of 38.4. IFPRI appreciated that India has developed and launched an action plan on ‘undernourishment free India’ by 2022. The plan shows stronger commitment and greater investments in tackling malnutrition in the coming years.
Question– India’s stood a poor 100th among 119 countries in recent released Global Hunger Index (GHI), which is worse than countries like North Korea and Iraq. It was one of the worst performers in Asia, better than only two other countries Afghanistan and Pakistan. Critically analyse the steps taken by government to address the hunger problem.
2.Digital police portal (PIB)
Synoptic line: It throws light on the launch of the Digital Police Portal to create national crime database. (GS paper II)
- As crime continues to grow, and criminals turn tech-savvy, police investigators across States face a tough challenge to bring the law-breakers to justice. The situation is, however, undergoing a revolutionary change.
- The Digital Police Portal launched by the Government of India as part of the Crime and Criminal Tracking Network and Systems (CCTNS), in August this year, will not only help police sleuths track the criminals fast, but also help the victims seek redress online.
Crimes in India
- The total IPC crimes in the country increased from 28.51 lakh in 2014 to 29.49 lakh 2015. According to the Union Home Ministry’s latest annual report (2016-17), the share of IPC crimes to total cognizable crimes in percentage terms was 37.2 per cent in 2011, and it increased to 40.3 per cent in 2015. The crime rate, which shows the number of crimes per one lakh population, too increased from 497.9 in 2012 to 581.8 in 2015.
- In such a complex scenario, the Digital Police Portal, with its various features, is expected to be a game-changer. The CCTNS portal will provide investigators the complete record history of any criminal from anywhere across the country. Equipped with a Google-type Advance Search engine and ability to give analytical reports, the portal is expected to become the backbone of the country’s criminal justice system.
- For the State Police organizations and investigating agencies like the CBI, IB, ED and NIA, the Digital Police Portal provides a National Database of crime and criminals with facility for 11 searches and 44 reports. This will improve national security and revolutionize the way police works in the country.
Digital police Portal
- The Digital Police Portal offers online facility to register FIRs. There will be initially seven Public Delivery Services in 34 States & UTs, like Person and Address Verification of employees, tenants, nurses etc; permission for hosting Public Events, Lost & Found Articles and Vehicle theft. The portal will turn criminal investigation completely citizen-friendly affair. The citizens’ reports and requests are forwarded to State and Union Territory Police without loss of time for follow-up action.
- The police portal will provide 11 searches and 46 reports from the national database for state police and central investigation agencies.
- In 2004, the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) initiated a project named- Common Integrated Police Application (CIPA) as a component of the “Modernization of State Police Forces (MPF)” project, aiming at computerization of crime records in police stations on a stand-alone basis. The need for setting up of a national database of crime records was realized later, and the MHA introduced a Central sector project of Crime and Criminal Tracking Network and Systems (CCTNS) in 2009, with the objective of inter-linking all police Stations under a common application software for the purpose of investigation, policy making, data analytics, research and providing Citizen Services.
- The project provided the State Police officials with a platform to enter Crime & Criminal data onto a CCTNS application, which could be accessed any time through State database at State Data Centre as well as at National Database at National Data Centre (NDC). The total approved outlay of the CCTNS project is Rs. 2000 Crore.
- The Central government provides funds to States and Union Territories towards hardware, CCTNS software, connectivity, system integration, data entry of legacy data, project management manpower and training.
- At present, the CCTNS software is deployed at 14284 Police Stations out of the 15398 Police Stations covered under the scheme.
- The total number of FIRs registered using CCTNS leapt from less than 1.5 lakhs in March 2014 to about 1.25 crores before June, 2017, registering a jump of almost 100 times. Thirty-fourStates and UTs have launched their State Citizen Service portals with key services such as reporting a crime, request for verification, permission for events etc. Thirty-five out of 36 States and UTs are sharing data with National Crime and Criminal database. The system has seven crore records for crime and criminal data including 2.5cr FIR records and legacy data.
- The scope of the CCTNS project has been enhanced to integrate the Police data with other pillars of the criminal justice system namely, Courts, Prisons, Prosecution, Forensics and Fingerprints and juvenile homes, and accordingly a new system “Inter-operable Criminal Justice System (ICJS)” has been developed. The ICJS system has been developed as a dashboard approach with an advance search facility for the purpose of retrieving the desired data from the system.
- Since the launch of the Digital Police Portal, citizens have begun registering complaints on the portal, and requests have been made for antecedent verification of persons. The Digital Police Portal is helping the Government in the efficient delivery of citizen-centric services in a friendly manner, which is an important responsibility of a modern welfare state today.
Question– As crime continues to grow, and criminals turn tech-savvy, police investigators across States face a tough challenge to bring the law-breakers to justice, discuss the recently launched ‘the Digital Police Portal’ how it will address the rising crimes.