1.How short is IAF of its fighter jets (Indian Express)

2.Importance of weight gain for healthier mothers (Down to Earth)

1.How short is IAF of its fighter jets (Indian Express)

Synoptic line: It throws light on the shortage of fighter jets that is being face by Indian Air force. (GS paper II)

Overview

  • Can a cricket team be expected to win playing with just seven players? This is the situation the Indian Air Force (IAF) faces four months from now, at the end of the current financial year, as two squadrons of old aircraft are decommissioned, the number of its fighter squadrons will fall to 31.
  • The Air Force is authorised 42 squadrons of fighter aircraft, which is the bare minimum it needs to dominate a two-front conflict. To be prepared for a two-front collusive threat, from China and Pakistan, is the government’s mandate for the IAF.

Optimum requirements

  • Each squadron of the IAF has 18 aircraft; this number that can sometimes be a little higher depending on the number of trainers in the squadron.
  • After prolonged gestation, India has developed its indigenous single-engine Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) Tejas; starting last year, five LCA Tejas have been inducted into the IAF. The obvious solution to the shortage of fighter aircraft that is hobbling the IAF, then, should be to quickly buy a large number of Tejas.
  • The five LCA Tejas supplied to the IAF by Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd (HAL), Bengaluru, are part of a contract for 40 aircraft, 20 in Initial Operational Clearance (IOC) configuration, and 20 in the Final Operational Clearance (FOC) configuration. But the FOC for LCA Tejas is yet to be attained; production is a long way away.
  • The Air Force is also committed to buying another 83 LCA Tejas, for which a Rs 50,000 crore contract is likely to be signed soon. These fighters will be the improved Mark-1A version, which is still in the design stage.
  • Even for the first 20 LCA (of IOC configuration), HAL’s production capacity is low. By the end of next year, it is expected to produce five aircraft per year. Which means it is only in 2020 that the IAF will get its first 20 fighters, and if delivery of the next 20 starts in 2021, it will get them by 2023. And if everything goes as planned a big if going by past experience and HAL can produce 16 Mark-1A fighters per year, the induction of all 83 will not be complete before 2028.
  • Induction of foreign-made aircraft will not help this situation. The IAF is getting 36 French Rafale fighters (which is a double-engine aircraft compared to the single-engine Tejas), besides the balance Russian Sukhoi Su30MKI fighters. (The fifth generation fighter aircraft, being jointly developed with Russia, has been found uneconomical by the IAF, and is no longer being considered).
  • Even if the induction of the Sukhoi, Tejas and Rafale aircraft are on schedule, given the obsolence of the IAF’s current aircraft and the schedule for their deinduction, the number of fighter squadrons will continue to fall. By 2032 then, the IAF will only have 27 squadrons, which will come down further to 21 in 2037, and 19 in 2042. This is a very alarming scenario.

What are options

  • The IAF would love to buy more Rafales. But it is an expensive aircraft and the government will have to dig deep for funds, which seems unlikely in the current scenario. The other option is to buy some other foreign single-engine fighter, and this is the route the IAF is currently exploring.
  • The American F-16 and Swedish Gripen are in contention for the supply of 114 fighters, 18 of which will come in flyaway condition, and the rest will be made in India. If the IAF can start evaluating the two aircraft by 2019 and the government takes a decision by 2020, the first 18 could be in service by 2023. If nine aircraft are produced in India per year, the IAF can have six squadrons of the foreign single-engine fighter by 2032.
  • The options at home include a plan to induct the LCA Tejas Mark-2, an improved version of the indigenous fighter, from 2027 so that the IAF has three squadrons of the Mark-2 by 2031. India is also developing the next generation Advanced Medium Combat Aircraft (AMCA), and the IAF expects to have its first squadron in service by 2032.
  • Should all of this work out, the IAF will have 37 fighter squadrons in service by 2032, instead of 27 — and 34 squadrons by 2042, instead of 19.

Way ahead

  • The American F-16 and Swedish Gripen are in contention for the supply of 114 fighters, 18 of which will come in flyaway condition, and the rest will be made in India. If the IAF can start evaluating the two aircraft by 2019 and the government takes a decision by 2020, the first 18 could be in service by 2023. If nine aircraft are produced in India per year, the IAF can have six squadrons of the foreign single-engine fighter by 2032.
  • The options at home include a plan to induct the LCA Tejas Mark-2, an improved version of the indigenous fighter, from 2027 so that the IAF has three squadrons of the Mark-2 by 2031. India is also developing the next generation Advanced Medium Combat Aircraft (AMCA), and the IAF expects to have its first squadron in service by 2032.
  • Should all of this work out, the IAF will have 37 fighter squadrons in service by 2032, instead of 27 and 34 squadrons by 2042, instead of 19.

Question– What should be the govt.’s approach rectify the problems of shortage of fighter fleets ?

2.Importance of weight gain for healthier mothers (Down to Earth)

Synoptic line: It throws light on the importance of gaining weight for the mothers. (GS paper I)

Overview

  • A new study has shown that little weight gain during pregnancy may be beneficial for the child, for shorter women who are more likely to deliver low birth weight babies.
  • Gaining about 490 grams of weight every week during pregnancy reduces the risk of delivering a low birth weight baby in short-statured women by almost 63 per cent, the study says.

Threats to shorter women

  • Short-statured women generally have a higher chance of delivering a low birth weight baby, which is a leading cause of death and illness in neonates. In addition, low birth weight babies are at higher risk of developing diabetes, hypertension and metabolic syndrome when they become adults.
  • UNICEF estimates that 20 million babies are born with low weight every year in the world and that India accounts for nearly 8 million or one third of this global burden.

New study

  • For the purposes of this study, doctors enrolled 1,254 pregnant women in the age range of 17 to 40 years from amongst those visiting the antenatal clinic at the St John’s Medical College in Bangalore for routine checkup. After recording their height, they were categorised into two groups. Those below a height of 152 cm were classified as “short-statured” and those above as “non-short”.
  • During the course of their pregnancy, their weight was recorded every week using a well-calibrated digital balance. When they delivered, the doctors noted the height and weight of their baby.
  • This data was analysed and it was found that improving weight during pregnancy in short-statured women may be beneficial forthe birth weight of the offspring. The researchers found that putting on weight in the third trimester, between 6 to 9 months of pregnancy, in particular, had a significant impact.
  • The number of low birth weight deliveries dropped from 22 per cent to 10 per cent in the short-statured group as against from 11 per cent to 6 per cent in the non-short group.
  • Short-statured women are thought to be more likely to deliver weak babies due to insufficient nutrition reserves that reduce their availability to the growing fetus. Also, they are thought to be prone to deliver small-sized babies as they have a short pelvic and uterine volume.

Way ahead

  • Poor nutrition of the mother is thought to be an important reason for having a low birth weight baby. But, we do not know how effective nutritional supplementation during pregnancy would improve birth weight. In this backdrop, this study is important.

Question– What are the possible reasons for gaining low weight in mothers during the course of pregnancies?