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01 MAY, 2017 (MAINS)

TODAYS ANSWER WRITING CHALLENGE FROM GS-I

 

Q1. The Satyagraha Movement lasted around two years, between 1916–1918, and is believed to have set the stage for the independence movement under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi. Elucidate. (200 words)

 

Please write the answer in comments section

  • Deepak Tomar

    • “Satyagraha” is a term comprising two words; “satya” or truth, and “agrah” or insistence. Hence, in its loose English interpretation, Satyagraha means ‘insistence on truth’.
    • Prominent Indian leaders such as Tilak and Annie Besant collectively founded the Indian Home Rule League in 1916, to demand self-governance within the Indian Empire. This created tremendous excitement within the Indian leaders and united the radicals, the Muslim League and the Congress into a single huge alliance.
    • However the League’s operations stalled when Tilak left India and Annie Besant were satisfied by what it had achieved.
    • Its further growth and activity were managed by the rise of Mohandas Gandhi and his Satyagraha art of revolution: non-violent, but mass-based civil disobedience. Gandhi’s Hindu lifestyle, mannerisms and immense respect for Indian culture and the common people of India made him immensely popular with India’s common people.
    • His victories in leading the farmers of Champaran, Bihar and Kheda, Gujarat against the British authorities on tax revolts made him a national hero.

  • Osho Korde

    • Satyagraha loosely translated as “insistence on truth” or “truth force” it’s a particular form of nonviolent resistance or civil resistance.
    • Champaran satyagraha was the first satyagraha movement occurred in champaran district of Bihar and Kheda district of Gujarat on 1917 to 1918.Ultimately the results of this satyagraha was,the disabilities from which the peasantry was suffering were reduced and Gandhiji won his first battle of civil disobedience in India (winning trust of fellow Indians too.).
    • Against many discriminations among the people of India on grounds of religion,sex,caste,race,etc. Mahatma Gandhi united those people through his speeches making people more aware that solving their problems is most necessary.
    • People respected him and his philosophy, which made him a prominent leader who had peoples trust, due to which he could gather a great mass participation into independence movement.
    • The leader ‘E.M.S. Namboodripad’, considered Champaran movement as a contribution to the development of nationalism.
    • Despite stiff opposition by the European planters and their protec-tors in the bureaucracy, Gandhiji and his comrades were able to bring the struggle to a successful conclusion.Setting base for new independence movements

  • Ashish

    After returning from South Africa in 1915 Gandhiji carried out Satyagraha movements in Chamaparan Ahmedabad and Kheda between 1916-1918.
    These movements were basically local in nature both due to their goals and in terms of the reach.For instance the movement in Champaran was aimed at liberating the peasants from the exploitative Tinkathia system. Similarly in Ahmadabad the Satyagraha was launched for addressing the demands for bonus of the workers
    But these movements also put forward the leadership ability of Gandhiji before the people which was demonstrated with:
    • Ability in dealing with poor peasants and rich and powerful planters alike as in Champaran or with labour and industrialists as in Ahmadabad
    • Resolving conflict of interest issues like he did not hesitate in doing satyagraha against his own friend, an industrialist in Ahmadabad, who refused to pay plague bonus to the workers
    • Thoroughly acquainting oneself with a problem before fighting for a cause as extensive studies about Tinkathia system was conducted before concluding that it wreaked havoc on the peasants
    Satyagraha movements gave a new tool to Indians to fight with.It gave a new personality to the nation who can take forward the leadership
    Thus by giving a new tool, a new leader and by inspiring the masses these Satyagraha movements had set the stage for independence movement under Gandhi’s leadership