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02 MAY, 2017 (MAINS)



Q1. What have been major changes which have taken place in the Indian foreign policy since the death of Nehru? Do you see any major continuity in Indian foreign policy since the Independence of the country? Elucidate both the changes and continuities. (200 words)


Please write the answer in comments section

  • Deepak Tomar

    • While multiplicity of regional parties has made the Indian parliament more democratic representing diversity; at the same time, declining internal democracy in the majority of parties marks the question on their democratic character.
    • Money power: 69% of the income of these parties was from unknown sources according to Association of Democratic Reforms.
    • Use of social media to secure votes in name of religions, caste, race etc. in violation of Section 123 of RPA.
    • Populist manifesto instead of long term vision.
    • Despite promoting cashless transactions for overall economy, 60% of the expenditure of political parties was in cash.
    • Increasing criminalization even though great emphasis laid on clean and corruption free politics.
    Beating for transparency along with attempts to avoid ambit of RTI.
    Rise in ethnicity based parties though good but leads to separatist and factionists tendencies.
    Increased use of social media good enough but minimizes personal contacts between candidates and voters.
    • The transition phase from single party to multi-party system has brought various benefit such as deepening of democracy, representing diverse interest particularly vulnerable sections, increased communication between people and their leaders etc.
    • A balancing extreme tendencies, ensuring transparency and democracy in parties themselves, along with political will to uphold constitutional nobles is the need of hour in this transition phase of Indian

  • Kamlesh Twari

    • The transition from building a “socialist society” to building a “modern capitalist” one.
    • It is about the shift from being a leader of the “Third World” to the recognition of the potential that India could emerge as a great power in its own right.
    • Rejecting the “anti-Western” mode of thinking.
    • Transition from idealism to realism. Idealism came naturally to the Indian elite that won independence from the British by arguing against colonialism.
    • Mutual respect for each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty.
    • Equality and mutual benefit
    • Peaceful coexistence (the economic and cultural cooperation, respect for human rights and self-determination & finally the promotion of peace & cooperation, with the international.
    • Helped to strengthen the Asian countries and India’s relations with the great powers.
    • Improve the affairs with Indian Ocean and its littoral expansion of relations with all the major powers, growing weight in Asia Increased power potential and the pursuit of “national interest” in order to contribute to “collective interests” of the international system.
    • India to contribute to order and stability in its immediate and extended vicinity would dramatically increase.
    • Make the powerful relations in terms of power and weapons & collaboration with china, Russia and other Asian countries and America.

  • Ashish

    The changes in the world’s as well as India’s political and economic order post 1964, the year Nehru died, have led to inevitable changes in India’s foreign policy
    From Idealism to Pragmatism
    • India’s support to its diaspora in other countries was with an eye on foreign remittances and using their leverage to further relations with the home country.
    • For instance India openly espoused the cause of Indians who were victims of ethnic conflicts like in Uganda.
    • American Indian community was of much help in getting the Indo-US nuclear deal passed in both the Houses of US
    From being a torch bearer of disarmament to a nuclear armed country
    • With successful nuclear tests in 1984 India became one of the few countries having nuclear weapons capability
    Expanding from ideological to Economic and Security Dimension
    • To add depth in relationship India sought to increase trade and security partnership.
    • For instance India earlier supported the cause of Arabs and the relationship with West Asian countries was transactional in nature, but now India has become a major trading partner of countries like Saudi Arabia, UAE etc
    Having said all this it would be naive to say that there has been a total change in our foreign policy. Perhaps the continuity is indicated by:
    • Focus on peaceful means to resolve disagreements
    Be it large country like China or smaller neighbours like Nepal Bhutan etc India has always insisted on resolving disagreements through dialogue and discussion
    • Maintaining Sustainable relationship
    While India has trade surplus with African countries due to technological advantage it tries to ensure human capital development through programmes like India-Africa Technical and Economic Cooperation etc
    • Support to People’s determination and their aspirations
    India was one of the few countries to recognise Peoples Republic of China when major powers refused. India still supports the two state solution to the Israel Palestine cause.
    • Non-membership of any military bloc
    India joined neither the US led NATO nor Soviet led Warsaw Pact despite having strategic partnership with both the countries and the growing military clout of Beijing