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05 MAY, 2017 (MAINS)

TODAYS ANSWER WRITING CHALLENGE FROM GS-I

 

Q1. Why was Bengal partitioned by the British? How did it lead to the growth of extremism and result in a divide within the Congress? Why did the British annul the Partition and with what were the effects of this event? (200 words)

 

Please write the answer in comments section

  • Kamlesh Twari

    • The British played the political trump card by using divide and rule policy diving into two religious parties Hindu and Muslim to break the unity, & said to form their own political parties.
    • For the convenience of administration, needs a fragmentation or division of British-India in its territorial boundary.
    • Promoting the development of Assam by including it under the direct jurisdiction of government which was administered by a Chief Commissioner.
    • Integrating the scattered sections of Orissa under a single administrative umbrella.
    It lead to the growth of extremist and terrorist schools of nationals because it divide the Muslim community from the Hindus. Moreover, Muslims were highly undermined by the Hindu Zamindaris, and other Hindus in the case of political, economic and all types of cultural contexts. Muslim had no right in expressing their views at that time. This created a huge political crisis among the Hindu- Muslims and Governor rules also which lead to disheartening Muslim community
    When the capital is shifted from Calcutta to Dhaka because of Muslim community, the pressure of government and all the frustrating halts and growth in the infrastructure for converting the whole Dhaka into new Dhaka. Then they decided to annul in 1911 and transferred to the new province.

  • Osho Korde

    • The British Indian government stated the reason of Bengal partition as a measure to improve the administration efficiency.
    • The western region of Bengal comparatively got more focus than that of the eastern region.
    • British projected the partition process would help the administration process by Reducing the burden of government of Bengal and form a separate government for the efficient administration of East Bengal and Assam.

    Growth of Extremist:

    • Partition of Bengal was one of the most important reason of emergence of extremism.
    • The Extremists wanted to extend Swadeshi movement and the Boycott movement from Bengal to all over the country. Whereas, Moderates Believed in England’s providential mission in India. The different ideologies between two created a path towards division of congress.

    Effects of the partition:

    • Partition sparked a major political crisis along religious lines.

    • Hindu resistance exploded as the Indian National Congress began the swadeshi movement that included boycotting British goods, terrorism, and diplomatic pressure.

    • The Muslims in East Bengal hoped that a separate region would give them more control over for education and employment, but they instead lost ground.

    • In 1906, Rabindranath Tagore wrote Amar Shonar Bangla as a rallying cry for proponents of annulment of Partition; in 1972, it became the national anthem of Bangladesh.

  • Ashish

    In order to weaken the demand of Bengali Hindus for a share in Governance and pits Hindus against Muslims Bengal was divided by the British in 1905 with “administrative efficiency” cited as one of the reason.
    AFTER EFFECTS of the partition of Bengal:
    • Widespread petitioning, agitations and protests were carried out
    • Swadeshi movement was launched
    • While the extremists wanted to take Swadeshi movement to the whole country the moderates wanted to keep it limited to Bengal
    • The moderates in the congress saw it as an affront to their dignity that their names were associated with leaders following unconstitutional means.
    • Besides they had faith in the benevolence of the British rule for instance the establishment of Aitchinson commission to reform civil services was cited as a proof of such character
    • There were differing interpretations of the 4 resolutions passed at the Benares session of congress in 1906
    • The above developments culminated with Surat split of 1907.
    ANNULLMENT OF PARTITION carried out:
     Partition sparked a major political crisis along religious lines. Hindu resistance exploded as the Indian National Congress began the swadeshi movement that included boycotting British goods, terrorism, and diplomatic pressure.
     The Muslims in East Bengal hoped that a separate region would give them more control over for education and employment, but they instead lost ground.
     In 1906, Rabindranath Tagore wrote Amar Shonar Bangla as a rallying cry for proponents of annulment of Partition
     Opposition was also supported by Sir Henry Cotton who had been Chief Commissioner of Assam. Later, Cotton, now Liberal MP for Nottingham East coordinated the successful campaign to oust the first lieutenant-governor of East Bengal, Sir Bampfylde Fuller.
    Due to these political protests, the two parts of Bengal were reunited in 1911
    Effect of the Annulment of the Partition of Bengal:
     Separate elections were established for Muslims and Hindus in 1919.
     Before this, many members of both communities had advocated national solidarity of all Bengalis.
     Nationally, Hindus and Muslims began to demand the creation of two independent states, one to be formed in majority Hindu and one in majority Muslim areas