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06 JUNE, 2017 (MAINS)



Q1.  “Forced incorporation of tribal communities into mainstream processes has had its impact on the tribal culture and society as much as its economy”. Do you second this view? Discuss in the context of the PESA Act, which helps empower the tribals to preserve their customs, culture, community resources and customary mode of dispute resolutions. (200 words)


Please write the answer in comments section

  • Ashish

    Tribal culture and economy are in shatters due to widespread technological and Socio-economic changes.
    The creation of large scale infrastructure and other developmental projects in forests and hilly areas has meant displacement of tribals from their traditional habitations. The Government in order to rehabilitate them provided jobs in new industries and construction projects. But modern industries need skills which are not available among tribals, this led to their being given second rate jobs in these establishments.
    Unlike the freewheeling nature of work in forests, the organised industries need work on a regular basis which deprives them of their way of living style.
    This coupled with segregated living in colonies adversely impinges upon their socio-cultural practices. Tribal festivals are fast becoming extinct.
    PESA helps to give the powers of decision making to the elected representatives of tribals.
    The Panchayats will have powers to decide upon the ommon resources like forests minor produce, lakes etc.

    India adopted the path of integration of tribals in the mainstream at their own pace following the recommendations of Bordoloi committee which talked about sixth schedule status to tribal regions.

  • Osho Korde

    ‘Tribe’ is a modern term for communities that are very old, being among the oldest inhabitants of the sub-continent.

    • the interaction with the mainstream has generally been on terms unfavourable to the tribal communities, many tribal identities today are centred on ideas of resistance and opposition to the overwhelming force of the non-tribal world.
    • Two broad sets of issues have been most important in giving rise to tribal movements.
    • These are issues relating to control over vital economic resources like land and specially forests, and issues relating to matters of ethnic-cultural identity.
    • The two can often go together, but with differentiation of tribal society they may also diverge.
    • The reasons why the emerging middle classes within tribal societies may assert their tribal identity may be different from the reasons why poor and uneducated tribals join tribal movements. As with any other community, it is the relationship between these kinds of internal dynamics and external forces that will shape the future.

    The 73rd amendment Act 1992 had made constitutional provisions for the three tier Panchayats all over the country.
    • In the Schedule areas, every village will have a Gram Sabha consisting of persons whose names are included in the electoral rolls for the Panchayats at the village level.
    • In the schedule areas, there will be a minimum of 50% seats reservation for Scheduled Tribes (STs) at all the tiers of Panchayats.

    Gram Sabha has the power to safeguard and preserve the traditions and customs of people, their cultural identity, community resources and customary mode of dispute resolution. It also has power to approve plans, programmes and projects for social and economic development, to identify persons as beneficiaries under the poverty alleviation and other programmes, to give certificate of utilisation of funds for various plans and programmes.