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16 JUNE, 2017 (MAINS)



Q1.  If India has to increase its GDP growth to 9 percent, then agriculture will have to grow by 4%. However, the productivity in the agriculture sector is very abysmal. Discuss the causes of the low productivity of Indian Agriculture. (200 words)


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  • Osho Korde

    Agriculture plays a vital role in India’s economy. Over 58 per cent of the rural households depend on agriculture as their principal means of livelihood. Agriculture, along with fisheries and forestry, is one of the largest contributors to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP).

    The problem of low agricultural productivity in India is a complex problem and it cannot be attribute to any single cause.
    1. Natural and general factors
    • Nature of soil.
    • Natural factors-Agriculture in India is dominated by nature, especially by rainfall. It is said to be a gamble in monsoon.
    • Subsistence farming- A large majority of farmers keep to farming for raising food grains for their subsistence and therefore they do not produce for selling in the market.
    2. Techno-economic factors
    • Outdated agricultural techniques- Wooden ploughs and bullocks are still used by a majority of farmers
    • Lack of irrigation facilities- Even in the case of irrigated area optimum use of water is not made on account of non-availability of suitable water channel sprinklers.
    • Use of manures.
    • Lack of adequate finance-the farmer has to depend on the village money lender who charges exorbitant rates.
    • Absence of productive investmentInvestment is jewellery, gold. etc., seem to be more attractive than investment in, land and other productive purposes.
    • Neglect of agriculture research- Expenditure on agricultural research is very small and not development oriented.
    • However, The NITI Aayog has proposed various reforms in India’s agriculture sector, including liberal contract farming, direct purchase from farmers by private players, direct sale by farmers to consumers, and single trader license, among other measures, in order to double rural income in the next five years.