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18 JUNE, 2017 (MAINS)



Q1.  The first form of struggle thrown up by the Swadeshi movement was the boycott of foreign goods, which was met with the greatest success. Elucidate. (200 words)


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  • Osho Korde

    • the government announced numerous spontaneous protest meetings and were held in mofussil towns such as Dinajpur, Pabna, Faridpur, Tangail, Jessore, Dacca, Birbhum, and Barisal. It was in these meetings that the pledge to boycott foreign goods was first taken.
    • At 7th August meeting, the famous Boycott Resolution was passed. Even Moderate leaders like Surendranath Banerjea toured the country urging the boycott of Manchester cloth and Liverpool salt.
    • The Indian National Congress took up the Swadeshi call and the Banaras Session, 1905, presided over by G.K. Gokhale, supported the Swadeshi and Boycott Movement for Bengal.
    • In Bengal, however, after 1905, the Extremists acquired a dominant influence over the Swadeshi Movement.
    • Several new forms of mobilization and techniques of struggle now began to emerge at the popular level.
    • The trend of ‘mendicancy,’ petitioning and memorials was on the retreat. The militant nationalists put forward several fresh ideas at the theoretical, propagandistic and programmatic plane.
    • Political independence was to be achieved by converting the movement into a mass movement through the extension of boycott into a full-scale movement of non-cooperation and passive resistance.
    • The technique of ‘extended boycott’ was to include, apart from boycott of foreign goods, boycott of government schools and colleges, courts, titles and government services and even the organization of strikes.
    • The aim was to ‘make the administration under present conditions impossible by an organized refusal to do anything which shall help either the British Commerce in the exploitation of the country or British officialdom in the administration of it.
    • This form of protest met with great success at the practical and popular level.