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20 OCTOBER, 2017 (MAINS)


Q1. Migration is a constant phenomenon throughout the history of humans. People have shifted to find better pastures and other resources; similarly people have left home to escape religious or political persecution or even the threat of climate change. Elaborate some of the socio-political push and pull factors, which effect migration in the 21st century.


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  • Osho Korde

    Migration can be defined as a form of relocation diffusion (the spread of ideas, innovations, behaviors, from one place to another) involving permanent move to a new location. Push and Pull factors are forces that can either induce people to move to a new location or oblige them to leave old residences; they can be economic, political, cultural, and environmentally based.

    #economic push factor : People think about emigrating from places that have few job opportunities
    # pull factor : People immigrate to places where the jobs seem to be available. An area that has valuable natural resources, such as petroleum or uranium, may attract miners and engineers. A new industry may lure factory workers, technicians, and scientists.

    #cultural push factor : Forced international migration has historically occurred for two main cultural reasons: slavery and political instability. Another push factor would be the fear of prosecution and these people would be refugees: people who have been forced to migrate from their homes and cannot return for fear of persecution.

    #pull factor : Political conditions can also operate as pull factors, especially the lure of freedom. People are attracted to democratic countries that encourage individual choice in education, career, and place of residence.

    #environmental push factor : Migrants can also be pushed from their homes by adverse conditions. Water-either too much or too little poses as an environmental threat. Many people are forced to move by water related disasters because they live in floodplains.

    # pull factor : Attractive environments for migrants include mountains, seasides, and warm climates