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Q1. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are the world’s time-bound and quantified targets for addressing extreme poverty in its many dimensions-income poverty, hunger, disease, lack of adequate shelter, and exclusion-while promoting gender equality, education, and environmental sustainability. While India has witnessed significant progress towards the MDGs, still some challenges are remaining to be addressed. Discuss (200 words)

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  • Osho Korde

    Millennium Declaration
    In 2000, 189 nations made a promise to free people from extreme poverty and multiple deprivations. This pledge became the eight Millennium Development Goals to be achieved by 2015. In September 2010, the world recommitted itself to accelerate progress towards these goals.
    • UNDP supports a range of local capacity development initiatives that address implementation challenges.
    • The process of preparation of human development reports has been instrumental in generating awareness on MDGs at the state and district levels and the policy and statistical challenges around attaining MDGs.
    • Nevertheless, estimates from 2012 reveal that, over 270 million Indians continue to live in extreme poverty – making the post-2015 goal of eliminating extreme poverty by 2030 challenging, but feasible.
    • However, eradicating hunger remains a key challenge. India is home to one quarter of the world’s undernourished population, over a third of the world’s underweight children, and nearly a third of the world’s food-insecure people.
    • Child survival in India needs sharper focus. This includes better managing neonatal and childhood illnesses and improving child survival, particularly among vulnerable communities. Survival risk remains a key challenge for the disadvantaged who have little access to reproductive and child health services.
    • The large scale of under-nutrition in expectant mothers and children poses a critical development challenge for India. On a positive note, various Ministries under the Government of India are implementing child centric policies and programmes which are vigorously attending the issues related to child health.