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24 JUNE, 2017 (MAINS)



Q1.  “The land reforms enacted in India so far, and those contemplated in the near future are in the right direction, and yet due to lack of implementation, the actual results are unsatisfactory”. Do you believe that the issue of land reforms has remained an unfinished business in India? Eludicate. (200 words)


Please write the answer in comments section

  • Osho Korde

    There are four main categories of reforms:
     Abolition of intermediaries (rent collectors under the pre-Independence land revenue system);
     Tenancy regulation (to improve the contractual terms including security of tenure);
     A ceiling on landholdings (to redistributing surplus land to the landless);
     Attempts to consolidate disparate landholdings

    Land reforms measures enforced by various governments-
     Abolition of intermediaries- Soon after independence, measures for the abolition of the Zamindari system were adopted in different states.
     As a result of the abolition of intermediaries, about 2 crore tenants are estimated to have come into direct contact with the State making them owners of land.
     The abolition of intermediaries has led to the end of a parasite class. More lands have been brought to government possession for distribution to landless farmers.
     However, this reform had some drawback. The total numbers of beneficiaries were fraction of total number of farmers requiring state help. It also led to large-scale eviction. Large-scale eviction, in turn, has given rise to several problems – social, economic, administrative and legal.

    The efficacy of the legislation was, however, considerably reduced for the following reasons;
     The act did not benefit sub-tenants and share croppers, as they did not have occupancy rights on the land they cultivated.
     Intermediaries were abolished, but the rent receiving class continued to exist.
     Many landlords managed to retain considerable land areas under the various provisions of the laws. Benami holdings became the order of the day in many States.
     The problems of transferring ownership rights from the actual cultivators of the land, the tenants, the sub-tenants, share croppers, therefore, remained far from resolved.