Municipal governance in India has existed since the year 1666, with the formation of Madras Municipal Corporation, and then the Calcutta and Bombay Municipal Corporation which were founded in 1726.
In the early part of the nineteenth century, almost all the towns in India had experienced some form of municipal governance. And in 1882 the then Viceroy of India, Lord Ripon’s resolution of local self-government laid the democratic forms of municipal governance in India.
In 1919, the Government of India Act incorporated the need of the resolution and the powers of democratically elected government were formulated. And in 1935, another Government of India Act brought local government under the purview of the state or provincial government and specific powers were given.
The constitution provides for three types of Municipalities:
- A Nagar Panchayat for a transitional area, that is to say, one area in transition from rural area to an urban area.
- A Municipal Council for a smaller urban area.
- A Municipal corporation for a larger urban area.