The Parliament of India is the supreme legislative body of the Republic of India. The Parliament is composed of the President of India and the houses. It is bicameral with two houses: the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) and the Lok Sabha (House of the People).
The President in his role as head of legislature has full powers to summon and prorogue either house of Parliament or to dissolve Lok Sabha. The president can exercise these powers only upon the advice of the Prime Minister and his Union Council of Ministers.
Organisation of Parliament
Parliament is the supreme legislative body of India. The Indian Parliament comprises of the President and the two Houses – Rajya Sabha (Council of States) and Lok Sabha (House of the People).
The President has the power to summon and prorogue either House of Parliament or to dissolve Lok Sabha. The Constitution of India came into force on January 26, 1950. The first general elections under the new Constitution were held during the year 1951-52 and the first elected Parliament came into existence in April, 1952.
According to its Constitution, India is a “sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic.” India has a federal form of government. The power is distributed between the federal government (the Centre) and the States in India.
However, the central government in India has greater power in relation to its states, and its central government is patterned after the British parliamentary system.
Legislative power in India is exercised by the Parliament, a bicameral Rajya Sabhalegislature consisting of the President of India, the Rajya Sabha, and the Lok Sabha.
Rajya Sabha is the Upper House of Parliament. It has not more than 250 members. Members of Rajya Sabha are not elected by the people directly but indirectly by the Legislative Assemblies of the various States. Every State is allotted a certain number of members.
Lok Sabha, as the name itself signifies, is the body of representatives of the people. Its members are directly elected, normally once in every five years by the adult population who are eligible to vote. The minimum qualifying age for membership of the House is 25 years. The present membership of Lok Sabha is 545. The number is divided among the different States and Union Territories.