Petroleum Conservation Research Association (PCRA)
Petroleum Conservation Research Association (PCRA) is a registered society set up under the aegis of Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas, Government of India. As a non-profit organization, PCRA is a national government agency engaged in promoting energy efficiency in various sectors of economy. It helps the government in proposing policies and strategies for petroleum conservation, aimed at reducing excessive dependence of the country on oil requirement. Over the years, PCRA has enlarged its role in improving productivity in use of various sources of energy.
The Energy Audit provides the vital information base for overall energy conservation program covering essentially energy utilization analysis and evaluation of energy conservation measures. It aims at:
- Identifying the quality and cost of various energy inputs.
- Assessing present pattern of energy consumption in different cost centers of operations.
- Relating energy inputs and production output.
- Identifying potential areas of thermal and electrical energy economy.
- Highlighting wastage’s in major areas.
- Fixing of energy saving potential targets for individual cost centers.
- Implementation of measures for energy conservation & realization of savings.
Benefits of Energy Audit from PCRA:
Petroleum Conservation Research Association (PCRA), under the aegis of MOP&NG, since its inception in the year 1978, has been actively engaged in formulating strategies to promote energy efficiency and conservation of petroleum products for sustainable development, energy security and environment protection.
PCRA has been the nodal agency in the country for many energy efficiency programmes across far and wide corner of the country penetrating to almost every sector of energy consumers viz. Industrial, Transport, Domestic and Agriculture etc. PCRA has a qualified and well experienced pool of manpower drawn from oil sector PSUs and to undertake such jobs. During the last 25 years, PCRA conducted more than 12,000 energy audits in small, medium and large industries.
The Board guidelines indicating the methodology for such an energy audit is given below. Possible stages for interaction/conference are also indicated.
- Collections of data on operational parameters, energy consumption both normal and electrical, coal and power quality etc., through a questionnaire.
- Study the existing plant capacities and their performance to assess plant operations.
- Study of the specific energy consumption (both thermal and electrical) department-wise and plant as a whole.
- Study of the power sources, distribution system and drive controls, load factor and efficiency of large motors (above 10 kW), process automations, plant illuminations etc.
- Collection of requisite data and analysis and identification of specific areas with potential for conservation of thermal and electrical energy.
- Field measurements of operational parameters and carrying out heat and mass balance.
- Study of limitations, if any, in the optimal use of thermal and electrical energy.
- Formulation of specific recommendations along with broad system concept for conservation of thermal and electrical energy.
- Preparation of capital cost estimates and establishing techno-economic feasibility for recommended measures.
- No investment and/or marginal investment by doing system improvements and optimization of operations.
- Major investment due to incorporation of modern energy intensive equipment and upgradation of existing equipment.
- Formulating tentative time schedule for implementation of the recommendation.
- Undertaking broad cost benefit analysis in terms of savings in energy consumption per unit of production and pay-back period.
- Follow-up with the industry on periodic basis to ascertain the level of implementation of recommendation and assist, if require, in implementation of the measures to achieve energy user efficiency.
Assistance required from Client Side:
- Nomination of one engineer as coordinator from client side and to provide the relevant data / record about equipment etc. (maximum available), during course of the Energy Audit. Any other requirement would be conveyed at site, as & when required.
- As and when required, the team of energy auditors will make visits in building / plant therefore arrangement of entry pass and gate pass for instruments carried by the team.
Preliminary Energy Audit
The Preliminary Energy Audit focuses on the major energy suppliers and demands usually accounting for approximately 70% of total energy. It is essentially a preliminary data gathering and analysis effort. It uses only available data and is completed with limited diagnostic instruments. The PEA is conducted in a very short time frame i.e. 1-3 days during which the energy auditor relies on his experience together with all the relevant written, oral visual information that can lead to a quick diagnosis of the plant energy situation. The PEA focuses on the identification of obvious sources of energy wastage’s. The typical output of a PEA is a set of recommendations and immediate low cost action that can be taken up by the department head.
Detailed Energy Audit
The detailed audit goes beyond quantitative estimates of costs and savings. It includes engineering recommendations and well-defined project, giving due priorities. Approximately 95% of all energy is accounted for during the detailed audit. The detailed energy audit is conducted after the preliminary energy audit. Sophisticated instrumentation including flow meter, flue gas analyzer and scanner are use of compute energy efficiency.
Scope of work for detailed Energy Audit
- Review of Electricity Bills, Contract Demand and Power Factor: For the last one year, in which possibility will be explored for further reduction of contract demand and improvement of power factor
- Electrical System Network : Which would include detailed study of all the Transformer operations of various Ratings / Capacities, their operational pattern, Loading, No Load Losses, Power Factor Measurement on the Main Power Distribution Boards and scope for improvement if any. The study would also cover possible improvements in energy metering systems for better control and monitoring.
- Study of Motors and Pumps Loading : Study of motors (above 10 kW) in terms of measurement of voltage (V), Current (I), Power (kW) and power factor and thereby suggesting measures for energy saving like reduction in size of motors or installation of energy saving device in the existing motors. Study of Pumps and their flow, thereby suggesting measures for energy saving like reduction in size of Motors and Pumps or installation of energy saving device in the existing motors / optimization of pumps.
- Study of Air conditioning plant : w.r.t measurement of Specific Energy consumption i.e kW/TR of refrigeration, study of Refrigerant Compressors, Chilling Units, etc. Further, various measures would be suggested to improve its performance.
- Cooling Tower: This would include detailed study of the operational performance of the cooling towers through measurements of temperature differential, air/water flow rate, to enable evaluate specific performance parameters like approach, effectiveness etc.
- Performance Evaluation of Boilers: This includes detailed study of boiler efficiency, Thermal insulation survey and flue gas analysis./li>
- Performance Evaluation of Turbines: This includes detailed study of Turbine efficiency, Waste heat recovery.
- Performance Evaluation of Air Compressor: This includes detailed study of Air compressor system for finding its performance and specific energy consumption
- Evaluation of Condenser performance: This includes detailed study of condenser performance and opportunities for waste heat recovery/li>
- Performance Evaluation of Burners / Furnace : This includes detailed study on performance of Furnace / Burner, thermal insulation survey for finding its efficiency
- Windows / Split Air Conditioners: Performance shall be evaluated as regards, their input power vis-a-vis TR capacity and performance will be compared to improve to the best in the category
- Illumination: Study of the illumination system, LUX level in various areas, area lighting etc. and suggest measures for improvements and energy conservation opportunity wherever feasible./li>
- DG Set: Study the operations of DG sets to evaluate their average cost of Power Generation, Specific Energy Generation and subsequently identify areas wherein energy savings could be achieved after analysing the operational practices etc. of the DG sets.
The entire recommendations would be backed up with techno-economic calculations including the estimated investments required for implementation of the suggested measures and simple payback period. Measurement would be made using appropriate instrumentation support for time lapse and continuous recording of the operational parameters.
Completion Period: It usually starts the field data collection at site with in one and half months time, from the date of receipt of work order and the draft energy audit report is submitted thereafter in 1 month time. Finalization of energy audit report is normally completed within 3 months. (After completion of the audit study, the findings and recommendations are discussed with the technical head and the final report with recommendations is submitted.
PCRA undertake studies to identify the potential and to make recommendations for achieving conservation of petroleum products in various sectors of the economy. It sponsors R&D activities for the development of fuel-efficient equipment / devices and organizes multi-media campaigns for creating mass awareness for the conservation of petroleum products. Fuel oil utilization studies, energy audits, introduction of equipment bank concept, use of energy vans, development of oil consumption norms, model depot projects, driver training programs, workshops/ exhibitions, consumer meets, education films/TV spots, hoarding/ electronic display, distribution of printed literature, R&D projects are other activities.
PCRA aims at making oil conservation a national movement. As part of its mandate, PCRA is entrusted with the task of creating awarenes amongst the masses about the importance, methods and benefits of conserving petroleum products & emission reduction.
To take the message to the people, PCRA uses all possible and effective media for mass communication. These include electronic and press media e.g. TV, Radio, Electronic displays; Press at the National and State level printed literature for specific target groups; outdoor publicity through Hoarding, Bus panels, Kiosks, Balloons, Banners Tran-sliders etc.
The focus of all the messages is easy to implement and practical conservation tips for the industrial, transport, agriculture & domestic sectors. For effective communication to the target groups in semi-urban and rural areas, messages are made in regional languages. Field interactive programs like seminars, Technical meets, Consumer meets, Workshops, Clinics, van-publicity, Exhibitions, Kisan melas are conducted for dissemination of conservation messages and demonstration of conservation techniques.
To give impetus to the oil conservation movement, PCRA utilizes various platforms like World environment day, World energy day, various festivals etc.
Over the years, PCRA has developed a number of films, TV spots and radio jingles in various languages for promoting oil conservation. PCRA also publishes quarterly a journal and a newsletter. Active Conservation Techniques (ACT), is a journal containing articles on technology by energy experts. It also brings out successful case studies leading to conservation of energy. The conservation news is an in-house newsletter highlighting the major activities carried out by PCRA in the core sectors.
For the benefit of various target groups of petroleum products, PCRA has developed literature containing simple ready to implement conservation tips and techniques. Special low cost green leaflets have also been developed to educate the masses on the ill effects of pollution caused due to incomplete combustion and its impact on health.
- To formulate strategies and promote measures for accelerating conservation of petroleum products leading to environment protection, energy security and sustainable development.
- To create awareness among masses about the importance, benefits and methods of conserving petroleum products & clean environment by enhancing information and capacity building.
- To promote research, development and deployment efforts aimed at petroleum conservation & environment protection, support & facilitate efforts for adoption and dissemination of fuel efficient technologies and substitution of petroleum products with alternate fuels and renewable.
- To establish synergistic institutional linkages at the national & international levels in the areas of petroleum conservation & environment protection.
- To provide training and technical advisory services, designed to achieve economy & efficiency in use of petroleum products for cleaner environment.
- To function as a Think Tank to the Govt. of India for proposing policies and strategies on petroleum conservation and environment protection aimed at reducing excessive dependence on oil.
Transport Sector – PCRA
In this sector the inter ministerial working group has identified a saving potential of 20%. The major thrust areas of activities in this sector include Driver Training Program, Model Depot Projects and mass awareness program. The annual recurring saving in transport sector due to PCRA efforts leads to substantial savings.
PCRA networks with a large number of organizations viz. Association of State Road Transport Undertakings (ASRTU), State Transport Undertakings (STUs), Automotive Research Association of India (ARAI), Central Road Research Institute (CRRI), Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (MoRTH), Traffic Police, NGOs and automobile associations for propagating awareness on efficient utilization of petroleum products in the transport sector.
The inter ministerial working group had identified a saving potential of 25 % in this sector. PCRA tries to reach the vast farming community and the thrust areas of activities includes replacement of inefficient foot valves, rectification of Lift Irrigation Pumps, Van Publicity programs, work group projects in adopted villages and Kisan Melas. Besides this PCRA also educates students who in turn educate the farmers about the efficient use of petroleum products in tractors and lift irrigation pumps.
PCRA networks with Agricultural Universities, Colleges,Schools, Krishi Vigyan Kendras, NABARD, SIRD,DRDA, IARI and State Government Agencies for propagating awareness on Oil Conservation in the agriculture sector. This has resulted in effectively reaching the farmers of our country and educating them about good maintenance practices for their pump sets and tractors. The savings through PCRA’s efforts in agriculture sector leads to a substantial recurring savings.
Domestic Sector – PCRA
The housewives and youth are the major target segments in this sector. The inter-ministerial working group has identified a saving potential of 30 % in this sector. PCRA’s gamut of activities includes education of housewives on good cooking habits, educating housewives and youth on good driving habits, development of fuel efficient kerosene and LPG stoves and lighting appliances. PCRA also encourages the use of alternate sources of energy such as bio-gas, solar heater etc.
PCRA adopts a networking institutional approach and takes help of Mahila Mandals, AIWC, AIWA, Youth forum, Jaycees, Lions Clubs, Rotary clubs, Residents Welfare Associations and various schools and colleges for conducting awareness programs. This results in a substantial annual recurring savings of petroleum products, which is a significant achievement.
Conservation of products
PCRA is a national government agency engaged in promoting conservation of petroleum products & energy efficiency in various sectors of economy. It helps the government in proposing policies and strategies for petroleum conservation, aimed at reducing excessive dependence of the country on oil requirement.
PCRA aims at making oil conservation a national movement. As part of its mandate, PCRA is entrusted with the task of creating awareness amongst the masses about the importance, methods and benefits of conserving petroleum products & emission reduction. It sponsors R&D activities for the development of fuel-efficient equipment / devices. The other major activities being carried out by PCRA are Driver training programs/Workshops on fuel efficient driving, Model depot projects for State Transport Undertakings for efficient operations, Energy Audits for energy conservation & energy efficiency potential, ISO 50001 certification for Energy Management System, Perform-Achieve-Trade(PAT) for designated consumers to reduce specific energy consumption, Fuel oil diagnostic studies to identify energy efficiency opportunities, Development of fuel economy norms for Heavy Duty Vehicles, workshops/ exhibitions, consumer meets, education films/TV spots, hoarding/ electronic display, distribution of printed literature. Over the years, PCRA has enlarged its role in improving productivity in use of various sources of energy, for the purpose of achieving environment protection and sustainable development.
The demand of petroleum products in the country is growing steadily and Govt. Policy as spelt out in India hydrocarbon vision 2025 considers issues such as energy security, use of alternate fuels and interchangeability of technology as vital to ensure that mix of energy sources used in economy is optimal and sustainable.