Phases of Indian National Movement
The INC in its early years was under the influence of the moderates, who were loyal to British rule and did not speak of independence. The Congress at that time believed that the English Parliament was mother of democracy and the British constitution was the best of all the constitutions. The methods of the Moderates were based on the 3 P’s:
The closing decade of the 19th century and the early years of the 20th witnessed the emergence of a new and younger group within the Indian National Congress, which was critical of the ideology and method of the old leadership. These “angry young men” advocated the adoption of Swaraj as the goal of the Congress, to be achieved by self-reliant and independent methods.
This new group came to be called the Extremists, in contrast to the older one, which was referred to as the Moderates.
The third and final phase of the Nationalist Movement [1917-1947] is known as the Gandhian era.
During this period Mahatma Gandhi became the undisputed leader of the National Movement.
His principles of nonviolence and Satyagraha were employed against the British Government.