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26 AUGUST, 2017 (MAINS)



Q1. On what basis does Carvaka reject the cause-effect relationship? (2012/15)


Please write the answer in comments section

  • jaish

    Carvaka was the heterodox and materialistic philosopher. He has accepted the ‘Perception’ as the only valid source of knowledge and rejected other pramanas.
    It is generally accepted that, relation of cause and effect is universal and necessary. But Carvaka has refuted the universal relation between the cause and effect. Causal theory is a kind of ‘Vyapti’ and Vyapti is concomitant and necessary relation between middle and major term. As per Carvaka, Vyapti is not valid source of knowledge; hence cause-effect necessary relation is also refuted.
    Refutation of vyapti by carvaka:
    *According to Carvaka, area of perception is limited, we can find the perceptual knowledge of some cases of relation of cause and effect but on the basis of that universal relation cannot be drawn. Otherwise fallacy of illicit generalization arises.
    *Vyapti is also not proved by the inference because it will lead to petitio principi and infinite regress.
    *Vyapti is also not established by the verbal testimony as it requires the reliable person which itself need inference.This will turn to become fallacy of petitio principi.
    *Also the unconditionality of cause and effect or relation of middle and major term is not proved. It can not be accepted as universal relation because extraordinary perception is not accepted by Carvaka.
    At the end, Carvaka has refuted the Vyapti and causal theory is itself a Vyapti per se. Therefore, Carvaka ultimately rejected the necessary relation between cause and effect