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26 MAY, 2017 (MAINS)



Q1. What is bondage according to Yoga philosophy? Explain the method of attaining Kaivelya in Patanjali’s Yogasutra. (2015/20/200 words)


Please write the answer in comments section

  • Ashish

    Yoga School of philosophy believes that Purusa is eternally pure and transcendental consciousness. It is the chitta with the reflection of Purusa in it, which is the phenomenal ego and which is subject to birth & death, transmigration, painful & pleasurable experience etc.
    It is the chitta that really performs the function such as sleeping, walking, knowing, doubting etc. It is also subject to five kinds of suffering:-
    1. Avidya
    2. Asmita
    3. Raga
    4. Dvyesh
    5. Abhinivesa
    So long as there are changes and modification of the chitta, the self is reflected therein and in the absence of discriminative knowledge, it identifies itself with them. Consequently the self feels pleasure, pain, indifference etc. This is BONDAGE.
    In order to liberate or attainting kaivalya one has to stop the modification of chitta i.e. Chitta-vritti-nirodh. Aim of yoga is to prevent the self from identifying itself with mental modification or chitta-vritti.
    Further, Yoga School says that yoga is conducive in only two level of mental life or Chitta-bhumi. There are five levels of Chitta-bhumi, which is due to pre-dominance of different gunas. These are-
    1. ksipta
    2. Muddha
    3. Viksepta
    4. Ekagra
    5. Niruddha
    The first three levels are not at all conducive to yoga. Only the last two levels i.e. Ekagra and Niruddha are conducive.
    Kaivalya can be attained by following ASHTANGIK MARG or Eightfold path. These are-
    1. Yam- It means abstention and includes the observance of satya, ahimsa, aprigraha and brahmacharya.
    2. Niyam- It includes both internal and external purification, contentment, study and devotion to God.
    3. Aasan- It includes steady and comfortable posture conducive for meditation.
    4. Pranayam- It means control of breath and deals with regulation of inhalation, retention and exhalation of breath.
    5. Pratyahara- It is the control of senses and withdrawing the senses from their object.
    6. Dharna- It is fixing of mind on the object of meditation.
    7. Dhayan- It means meditation in the undisturbed flow of thought i.e. contemplation without break.
    8. Samadhi- It means prolonged concentration. Here, mind is completely absorbed in the object of meditation. Both have become one. It is the highest means to realise- cessation of mental mental modification, which is the end.
    The ideal of kaivelya is the absolute independence which includes eternally free the life of the Purusa from the Prakriti.