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27 JUNE, 2017(MAINS)



Q1. Is anyathakhyativada an adequate explanation of error? (2015/15/200 words)


Please write the answer in comments section

  • Kamlesh Twari

    1. The Nyaya theory of error is similar to that of Kumarila’s Viparita-khyati in Mimamsa philosophy.
    2. The Naiyayikas also believe like Kumarila that error is due to a wrong synthesis of the presented and the represented objects.
    3. The represented object is confused with the presented one.
    4. The word ‘anyatha’ means ‘elsewise’ and ‘elsewhere’ and both these meanings are brought out in error.
    5. The presented object is perceived elsewise and the represented object exists elsewhere.
    6. They further maintain that knowledge is not intrinsically valid but becomes so on account of extraneous conditions (paratah pramana during both validity and invalidity).
    7. As for God and salvation, early Naiyayikas wrote very little about Ishvara (literally, the Supreme Soul).
    8. However, later Buddhists in India had become from agnostic to strictly atheistic.
    9. As a reaction, the later Naiyayikas entered into disputes with the Buddhists and tried to prove the existence of God on the basis of inference.
    10. They made this question a challenge to their own existence.