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09 OCTOBER, 2017 (MAINS)

TODAYS ANSWER WRITING CHALLENGE FROM PHILOSOPHY PAPER – 1 – PART B

Q1. Analyse the Nyaya concept of vyapti and examine its relation with tark .(2013/12 ½)

 

Please write the answer in comments section

  • Akshay

    Nyaya philosophy accepts vyapti in its theory of knowledge. Vyapti is a concomitant, unconditional and universal relation between hetu and sadhya.
    According to Nyaya, the statement if there is a smoke then there is a fire’ is accepted as vyapti. Vyapti is based on inference. This gives us the conclusion which we cannot perceived directly.
    Nyaya gives the five arguments in favour of vyapti: these are agreement, disagreement, unconditional, avyabhicaragraha, and indirect proof (tark).
    Tark is a hypothetical reasoning. It proves vyapti in the indirect way. According to this, if the above statement of vyapti is not true then it contradictory statement must be true. That is fire is not accompanied with the smoke. But in reality it cannot be considered as true. If contradictory statement is true then Nyaya argues that why we need a fire to smoke the cigar?. Thus it proves the vyapti. In this way Nyaya proves the validity of vyapti with the help of tark.
    However charvaka say that the inference is a mere leap in a dark. Thus charvaka rejected vyapti and inference.