Structure and Jurisdiction
District Courts: Constitution
The basis of structuring of district courts in India is mainly depending upon the discretion of the state governments or the union territories. The structure of these courts is mainly made considering several factors like the number of cases, distribution of population, etc. Depending upon these factors, the state government takes the decision of numbers of District Courts to be in operation for single district or clubbing together different adjacent districts.
Normally, district courts exercise their power of juridical service in district level. These courts are covered by the administrative power of the High Courts under which the district courts are covered. The judgments of the district courts are subject to review to the appellate jurisdiction of the respective high court.
The village courts are named as Lok Adalat or Nyaya Panchyat which means the service of justice extended to the villagers of India. This is the system for resolving disputes in micro level.
This conceptual model had been started to be sued from the state of Gujarat consisting of a judge and two assessors since 1970s. The Law Commission had recommended in 1984 to form the Nyaya Panchayats in the rural areas with the people of educational attainment.
The latest development had been observed in 2008 through initiation of Gram Nyaylayas Act which had sponsored the concept of installation of 5000 mobile courts throughout the country. These courts are assigned to judge the petty cases related to civil and criminal offence which can generate the penalty of up to 2 years imprisonment.
The district courts are mainly run by the state government appointed district judges. There are additional district judges and assistant district judges who are there to share the additional load of the proceedings of District Courts.
These additional district judges have equal power like the district judges for the jurisdiction area of any city which has got the status of metropolitan area as conferred by the state government.
These district courts have the additional jurisdictional authority of appeal handling over the subordinate courts which are there in the same district specifically in the domain of civil and criminal affairs
There are in total 351 district courts in operation out of which 342 are of states while 9 are of union territories.