Civil Services 2021

UPSC Mains GS-III Model Answer Pointers

Q1. Explain the difference between computing methodology of India’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) before the year 2015 and after the year 2015. (Answer in 150 words)


  • Easy Question, and pretty straightforward.


Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is the final value of goods and services produced within the domestic territory of an economy in a particular financial year. In India, economic growth is measured as change in GDP at constant prices.

Central Statistical Office (CSO), in 2015, changed its methodology to calculate GDP as recommended by the United Nations System of National Accounts

GDP Calculation Before 2015 

  1. The earlier base year for calculation of GDP was 2004-05.
  2. GDP was calculated at factor cost.
  3. Index of Industrial Production (IIP) was used to measure manufacturing and trading activity.
  4. In the older system, GDP was first estimated by using the IIP data and then updated using the ASI data (Annual Survey of Industries). ASI accounted only for those firms which were registered under the Factories Act.

GDP Calculation after 2015

  1. The government moved to a new base year of 2011-12 for GDP calculation.
  2. GDP is now calculated at Market Price.
  3. The international practice of valuing industry-wise estimates as gross value added (GVA) at basic prices was adopted.
  4. The government adopted MCA-21 database, which allows the firms/companies to electronically file their financial results.

Common Mistakes Made by students

  • Not revising the simple things like methodology. GDP figures are very important hence computation of same, one should also be aware.

Q2. Distinguish between Capital Budget and Revenue Budget. Explain the components of both these Budgets. (Answer in 150 words)


Basics of Indian Economy, India’s Fiscal policy and government budgeting. Very easy question and straightforward, its better one draws diagram for easier classification.


As per article 112 of the Constitution, the budget must distinguish the expenditures on revenue account from other expenditures (capital account). Therefore, the budget of Govt. of India is divided into Revenue Budget and Capital Budget, which are further divided into receipts budget and expenditure budget

Capital Budget  Revenue Budget 

Capital budget is a statement of the government’s estimated capital receipts and capital expenditure. Capital budget covers capital items which are of non-recurring nature.


Revenue budget is a statement of the government’s estimated revenue receipts and revenue expenditure for a period of one financial year. Revenue budget covers revenue items which are of recurring nature and are nonredeemable.

Capital receipts are receipts of the government which create liabilities or reduce financial assets, e.g., market borrowing, recovery of loan, etc.


Capital expenditure is the expenditure of the government which either creates assets or reduces liability like creation of an asset, investment.

The revenue receipts include both tax revenue like income tax, excise duty and non-tax revenue like interest receipts, profits.


Revenue expenditure is expenditure for normal running of the government department and various services, interest charges on debt incurred by government, subsidies

Common Mistakes Made by students

Getting confused in the classification.

Q3. How did land reforms in some parts of the country help to improve the socio-economic conditions of marginal and small farmers ? (Answer in 150 words)


Again a very basic question. Straightforward and important part of your syllabus.


Land reform usually refers to redistribution of land from rich to poor. More broadly, it includes regulation of ownership, operation, leasing, sales and inheritance of land.

How Land Reform improved socio-economic conditions of marginal and small farmers: 

  1. Abolition of Intermediaries: Elaborate
  2. Tenancy Reform:
  3. Ceiling on Landholdings:
  4. Consolidation of Holdings:
  5. Cooperative Farming:
  6. Land Records:


Land consolidation has been

  • lengthy and cumbersome process.
  • Additionally, Farmers are emotionally attached to their ancestral land.
  • Led to large scale litigation
  • The inheritance laws led to further division and fragmentation

Land Ceiling not followed properly in many areas.

Common Mistakes Made by students

How effective part is really important. Bring out its effectiveness with various examples and issues. That’s where student is expected to make a mistake in question like this.

Q4. How and to what extent would micro-irrigation help in solving India’s water crisis? (Answer in 150 words)


Two parts, how and to what extent. That’s it. Straightforward.


A large population, needs of agricultural economy and urbanization have created situation of water stress in India. The irrigation needs of agriculture are at the heart of the problem of water stress. In this perspective, micro-irrigation is seen as a solution.


  • It will help move away from unsustainable irrigation practices like flood irrigation which also lead to ecological issues like ground water pollution, salinity, eutrophication etc.
  • It can address needs of dryland farming in regions with depleting groundwater aquifers. For example, in Punjab.
  • It can help reduce over-dependence on monsoon and vulnerability to drought. For example, less than 50% agriculture is irrigated at present.
  • Efficient use of water through micro-irrigation can help reduce the agricultural demand of water. This will help reduce inter-state river water disputes.

To what extent

  • Until and unless the micro irrigation systems are affordable it won’t be as effective, as there are farmers with small and marginal farmers are less likely to invest a lot in such systems.
  • Until and unless groundwater tube well irrigation option is available with farmers, it is tough for them to invest in micro irrigation

Common Mistakes Made by students

Supported examples in each point is necessary. Question is straight forward, examples in each point is necessary.

Q5. How is S-400 air defence system technically superior to any other system presently available in the world? (Answer in 150 words)


Air Defence System which India has purchased from Russia. A lot in news because of US apprehensions of sanctioning India under CAATSA for buying this.


The S-400 (Triumf) is a mobile long range surface-to-air missile (LR-SAM) system developed by Russia. It is considered as one of the world’s most advanced air defence systems that can simultaneously track and neutralize a range of incoming aerial threats. India has engaged with Russia for the purchase of 5 S-400, missile defence system.

How it is technically superior to other systems in the world

  • The missile system is tackle any aerial target within a range of 400km and can simultaneously engage 36 targets.
  • Named SA-21 Growler by NATO and developed by Russia’s Almaz Central Design Bureau,S-400 Triumf is one of the world’s most advanced air defense systems.
  • It is a surface-to-air missile system that can simultaneously track and neutralise a range of incoming objects spanning aircraft, missiles and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) over very long ranges.
  • It can provide air interception against early warning aircraft, airborne missile strategic carriers, tactical and theatre ballistic missiles, medium-range ballistic missiles, etc.
  • The S-400 is fully mobile and each system has a 3D phased array acquisition radar that can track around 300 targets up to 600 km.
  • It has a command and control centre, automatic tracking and targeting systems, launchers and support vehicles.
  • Each system has four different types to missiles for up to 40 km, 120 km, 250 km and 400 km and up to 30 km altitude.
  • It can be activated within five minutes and has the flexibility to be integrated into the existing and future air defence units of the air force, army and navy.
  • The S-400 also comes with improved electronic counter-countermeasures to tackle the attempts at jamming.
  • Another capability of S-400 is its “fire-and-forget capability” which does not require further guidance after the launch and can hit the target without the launcher being in line-of-sight of the target.

Q6. Explain the purpose of the Green Grid Initiative launched at World Leaders Summit of the COP26 UN Climate Change Conference in Glasgow in November, 2021. When was this idea first floated in the International Solar Alliance (ISA) ? (Answer in 150 words)


  • The Green grid/OSOWOG initiative announced at COP-26, Glasgow by India and UK, is an international initiative to create an interconnected global power grid for reliable, resilient and affordable supply of clean energy for all.
  • In first assembly of the International Solar Alliance (ISA), in October 2018, Prime Minister Narendra Modi floated the idea of the OSOWOG initiative. The UK and India decided to merge the UK’s Green Grids Initiative (GGI) and ISA’s OSOWOG into GGI-OSOWOG as part of the UK-India Virtual Summit earlier this year.


  •  To help in increasing investment in Research and development centers by pooling skill, technology and financial resources.
  • To speed up the process to decarbonize energy production, which is the largest source of global GHG emissions.
  • To operate by building and scaling inter-regional energy grids, leveraging the difference of time zones, seasons, resources, and prices between the country and region.
  • To transport solar power to different countries by creating a three phase 2600 GW of interconnection by connecting Asia, Africa and rest of the world by 2050.
  • To create international network of global interconnected solar power grid, to ensure 24×7 supply of green power.

Common Mistakes Made by students

COP 26 has been extremely important conference and anything which India has done in COP 26 should be closely followed. Just reading about COP 26 won’t do.

Q7. Describe the key points of the revised Global Air Quality Guidelines (AQGs) recently released by the World Health Organisation (WHO). How are these different from its last update in 2005? What changes in India’s National Clean Air Programme are required to achieve these revised standards ? (Answer in 150 words)


Talk in comparison with 2005 guidelines. Then talk changes required in NCAP standards.


Key points

  • Mention the data in figure below
  • The sulphur dioxide levels should not exceed 40 micrograms per cubic metre  over a 24-hour period
  • The carbon monoxide levels should not exceed 4 micrograms per cubic metre  over a 24-hour period

Changes required in India’s NCAP

  • India’s air pollution standards are more relaxed in comparison to WHO’s prescribed guidelines. Thus, efforts are needed to make the guidelines more stringent with revised targets.
  • Under the proposed new Mission – Clean Air for All, government tends to make targets of PM2.5 & PM10 more stringent.
  • Global standards should become Indian standards. Only then there will be more urgency in tackling Air Quality.

Common Mistakes Made by students

  • Data is the key here, so ability to remember data in such questions is key here.
  • Lack of Current affairs revision

Q8. Discuss about the vulnerability of India to earthquake related hazards. Give examples including the salient features of major disasters caused by earthquakes in different parts of India during the last three decades. (Answer in 150 words)


If you have seen India’s Earthquake vulnerability map properly, you’ll be easily able to answer



  • Densely populated areas, extensive unscientific constructions and unplanned urbanization have increased risks associated with earthquake hazards.
  • Andaman & Nicobar Islands frequently experience damaging earthquakes due to being situated on an inter-plate boundary.
  • Regions in Himalayan foothills are vulnerable to liquefaction and landslides due to earthquakes
  • Very High Damage Risk Zone: North-east states, areas to the north of Darbhanga and Araria along the Indo-Nepal border in Bihar, Uttarakhand, Western Himachal Pradesh (around Dharamshala) and Kashmir Valley in the Himalayan region and the Kuchchh (Gujarat).
  • High Damage Risk Zone: the remaining parts of Jammu and Kashmir, Ladakh, Himachal Pradesh, Northern parts of Punjab, Eastern parts of Haryana, Delhi, Western Uttar Pradesh, and Northern Bihar .

Major earthquakes in last 3 decades

  • 1993 Latur: 6.2 magnitude;
  • 1999 Chamoli: Caused by thrust fault;
  • 2001 Bhuj:
  • 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami:
  • 2005 Kahmir: 7.6 magnitude;

Common Mistakes Made by students

  • Not revising basics

Q9. Discuss how emerging technologies and globalisation contribute to money laundering. Elaborate measures to tackle the problem of money laundering both at national and international levels. (Answer in 150 words)


Awareness of emerging tech. is necessary, define what is money laundering first and then talk how, therafter measures to tackle.


Money laundering is disguising the identity of illegally obtained money so that it would appear to have originated from legitimate sources. Money laundering is generally used by criminals to disguise their illicit funds, terrorists to dodge tracking or tax evaders.

Emerging technologies and Globalisation contribute to money laundering in following ways:

  • Shell companies
  • Use of cryptocurrencies and alternate finance that are unregulated by governments
  • Encrypted conversations facilitate exchange of information about money laundering
  • Using transactions medium through deep and dark web
  • Structuring Deposits into smaller chunks
  • Distribution of assets across countries
  • Placing money in Tax haven countries
  • Identity theft

Following national and international measures have been enacted to tackle money laundering:

  • Prevention of Money Laundering Act (PMLA), 2002 established the legal framework to prevent money laundering. It criminalizes money laundering as a cognizable, non-bailable offence.
  • The Smugglers and Foreign Exchange Manipulators (Forfeiture of Property) Act, 1976 and Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, 1985 provides for the penalty of property derived from smuggling or illegal traffic in narcotic drugs.
  • Financial Intelligence Unit – India (FIU-IND) coordinates efforts of national and international intelligence, investigation and enforcement agencies against money laundering
  • RBI regulations and KYC norms issued from time to time try to keep up with evolving threats and methods of money laundering.
  • The Vienna Convention makes it obligatory for signatory states to criminalize the laundering of money from drug trafficking.
  • The financial action task force (FATF) sets standards and promotes effective implementation of legal, regulatory and operational measures against money laundering; terror financing.
  • The OECD forum has adopted convention against money laundering. It supports appropriate safeguards, access to tax administration in suspicious transaction based on information received from FIUs.

Common Mistakes Made by students

Remembering multiple organizations and mechanisms. Also relating technogies with money laundering can be a challenge.

Q10 . Keeping in view India’s internal security, analyse the impact of cross-border cyber attacks. Also discuss defensive measures against these sophisticated attacks. (Answer in 150 words)


Impact of cross border cyber attack

  • Impact on Critical Information Infrastructure (Power Plans, nuclear Plants, telecommunications etc.) eg: Kudankulam power plant
  • Form of Hybrid Warfare
  • It can be used to disrupt social harmony through radicalization. Terrorists may use social media to plan and execute terror attacks and for “virulent propaganda” to incite hatred and violence, recruit youth and raise funds.
  • It can be used as spyware to get sensitive information.(e.g India banning Chinese mobile applications)


  • National Cyber Security Coordinator (NCSC) – to coordinate with different agencies at the national level for cyber security matters.
  • Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-In) – to issue alerts and advisories regarding latest cyber threats and countermeasures on regular basis to various concerned agencies.
  • National Critical Information Infrastructure Protection Centre (NCIIPC) has been established The post of Chief Information Security Officer (CISO) has been created in various organizations to deal with cyber security issues.
  • Cyber Swachhta Kendra (Botnet Cleaning and Malware Analysis Centre) has been launched for detection of malicious programs and provide free tools to remove the same.
  • National Cyber Coordination Centre (NCCC) has been set up for timely sharing of information with individual entities to enable them to undertake preventive and protective actions against existing and potential cyber security threats.
  • Information Technology Act, 2000to provide legal recognition for electronic communication, electronic commerce and cyber-crimes. IT Act has deterrent provisions to deal with cyber threats and cyber-attacks.

Common Mistakes Made by students

Current Awareness understanding and India’s cyber security infrastructure is very important. Hence CA is an integral part.

Q11. Do you agree that the Indian economy has recently experienced V- shapes recovery? Give reasons in support of your answer. (Answer in 250 words)


Can give reasons for both yes and no, but with data and examples. Here drawing a chart wrt type of recovery is recommended.


Arguments in favor

  • As per GDP Data,
  • High frequency indicators like core industries, IIP, GST, Tax collections, rail freight etc. all have showed a V shape recovery

Arguments Against

  • More vulnerabilities of some sectors: Sectors like supply chain, logistics, hospitality are dependent on human interactions which remain limited due to social distancing constraints.
  • Role of technology: Expansion of digital economy and society through 4G, smart phones etc. have helped the service and knowledge sector to continue their economic activities, while limiting the activity in manufacturing.
  • External factors: Strong integration of the Indian economy with the global economy in addition to skewed import dependence of Indian economy has impacted domestic recovery in different sectors in peculiar ways, such as disruptions from slowdown in import of raw goods and export of finished products.
  • GVA is yet to surprass 2019 levels, hence many economists say its K or L shaped recovery.

Common Mistakes Made by students

  • Awareness about types of recoveries
  • Not reading Economic survey and quarterly GDP Data.

Q12. “Investment in infrastructure is essential for more rapid and inclusive economic growth. ”Discuss in the light of India’s experience. (Answer in 250 words)


Easy question. If one has deep understanding of Macro Economy, can easily answer this. Here understanding post liberalization is also important to share examples.


The infrastructure sector is a major economic driver in India. The sector plays a critical role in propelling India’s overall development, and the government places a high priority on implementing policies that will ensure the country’s world-class infrastructure is built in a timely manner.

Why Investment in Infrastructure is needed for an inclusive economic growth and how it has impact overall in India:

  • Creation of Jobs
  • Increases Farmers Income
  • Improves basic welfare services
  • Decreases logistics cost
  • Multiplier effect
  • Increases aggregate demand
  • Utilizes demographic dividend

Q13. What are the salient features of the National Food Security Act, 2013 ? How has the Food Security Bill helped in eliminating hunger and malnutrition in India?(Answer in 250 words)


  • Salient features of NFSA 2013, Straightforward.
  • How it has helped.
  • Easy question


Govt. of India in 2013 enacted The National Food Security Act to provide subsidized food grains to 75% of the rural population and 50% of the urban population totaling around 84 crore people. Following are some of the important features of the Act:

  • Coverage and entitlement: Up to 75% of rural and 50% of the urban population will be covered under TPDS, with uniform entitlement of 5kg/person/month ration
  • The Antyoday Anna Yojana (AAY) beneficiaries are provided 35 kg per month per family @ Rs. 3/kg rice, Rs. 2/kg wheat and Rs. 1 per kg coarse grains.
  • Priority households are provided 5 kg per person per month @ Rs. 3/kg rice, Rs.2/kg wheat and Rs. 1 per kg coarse grains.
  • Women are provided free meal during pregnancy and up to six months after child birth through Aanganwadi and Rs. 6000 in installments
  • Children aged 6 months to 6 yrs are provided free meal at local Aanganwadi
  • Children aged 6 yrs to 14 yrs are provided mid-day meal scheme at school
  • The eldest woman who is not less than 18 years of age, in every eligible household, are made the head of the household for the purpose of ration cards

Role of NFSA in eliminating hunger and malnutrition: 

  • According to a UN report number of undernourished people in India has declined by 60 million between 2006 to 2019.
  • Improved access to food grains have improved the hunger outcomes amongst the poor and underprivileged.
  • Wide coverage of the 2/3rd population have increased resilience in the poor against income shocks.
  • Stunting in children under 5 years of age, according to the UN report have decreased from 47.8% in 2012 to 34.7% in 2019.
  • Monetary compensation has compensated against wage loss during pregnancy. PWLM can now access to healthier food options like fruits, vegetables etc.
  • The awareness generated by the Asha workers have increased the number of infants who were exclusively breastfed from 11.2 million in 2012 to 13.9 million in 2019.

Common Mistakes Made by students

  • Challenge is to remember the effect of the scheme by remembering data from some recent reports. Here NFHS data has been pretty useful, but not writing those requisite points is a mistake

Q14. What are the present challenges before crop diversification? How do emerging technologies provide an opportunity for crop diversification? (Answer in 250 words)


Highly discussed in the newspapers and editorial. Just collate the points you’ve understood.


Crop diversification refers to the addition of new crops or cropping systems to agricultural production on a particular farm. In India crop diversification is happening mostly into horticulture, livestock and commercial crops like cotton, soyabean etc.

The major problems and constraints in crop diversification are primarily due to the following reasons with varied degrees of influence:

  • Impact of Green Revolution: Mono-cropping
  • Monsoon Dependence
  • Poor basic infrastructure like rural roads, power, transport, communications etc
  • Very weak agro-based industry.
  • Weak research – extension – farmer linkages.
  • Fragmented land holding
  • Shift from Food crops to Commercial Crops
  • Lack of High Yielding Varieties (HYV) of seeds, usage of old implements, lack of weather forecasting
  • Host of diseases and pests affecting most crop plants.
  • Government’s MSP procurement policy

Emerging Technologies and opportunities provided by them: 

  1. IT Revolution: It is helping to connect farmers directly with grocery-customers ( farm to fork model) leading to cultivation of high value perishable products (e.g Big Basket, BlinkIt startup platforms)
  2. Aquaponics and Urban Farming: To meet the heavy urban demand for Persisahble items, this technique of controlled environment cultivation is helping in crop diversification.
  3. Financial Inclusion and Digitization: It has helped small farmers, women SHGs to ensure crop diversification through credit supply.
  4. Irrigation: PM Krishi Sinchai Yojna has ensured access to micro irrigation (Per Drop More Crop), drip irrigation, sprinklers etc.
  5. Dryland Agriculture: Indo-Israel Agriculture Project has introduced technologies like Urea Deep Placement (UDP), Poly-bag Nursery farming etc in arid areas(e.g Rajasthan has seen cultivation of strawberries and olives).
  6. Using drone technology with AI enabled cameras, farmers can monitor the entire field sitting at home. This can lead to diversification to commercial and high value crops.
  7. Precision farming can help farmers in diversification to horticulture crops as these are high input and high output crops which require continuous monitoring and active management of soil nutrients, pests and diseases
  8. Soil Health Management: It has helped ensuring right Fertilizer usage, developing Organic Framing, providing GIS based thematic mapping for soil.(e.g. Soil Health Card)

Q15. What are the research and developmental achievements in applied biotechnology? How will these achievements help to uplift the poorer sections of the society? (Answer in 250 words)


Biotechnology is an interdisciplinary field that involves the use of live organisms or enzymes from organisms to produce products and processes useful to humans.

Achievements in Biotechnology:

  • Stem Cell Research
  • Human Genome Project
  • Targeted Cancer Therapies
  • m-RNA Vaccine
  • GM Crops
  • Recombinant DNA Techniques
  • Waste Management
  • Assisted Reproductive Technologies

Role of Biotech in Uplifting Poor’s 

  • Increase the income of marginal farmers by increasing crop yield and making them climate and pest resilient.
  • Development of medicines using Biotech is reducing healthcare expenditure for the poor. E.g; the cost of Insulin has come down.
  • Conversion of waste into assets for the poor. E.g.; Bio-composting turns waste into valuable fertilizer.
  • Poor suffer the most from pollution. Biotechnology also helps in reducing pollution and thus alleviates their suffering. E.g.; Bioremediation techniques help clean landfills around slums.
  • Increasing the shelf life of food products which in turn keeps their price in check for the poor.
  • Vaccine development

Common Mistakes Made by students

Writing less achievements i.e under 5. Try to write more than 5 achievements.

Q16. The Nobel Prize in Physics of 2014 was jointly awarded to Akasaki, Amano and Nakamura for the invention of Blue LEDs in 1990s. How has this invention impacted the everyday life of human beings ? (Answer in 250 words)


UPSC asking old discoveries. Hence need to keep yourself acquainted with important achievements in the field of tech. for last 10 years is important.

Tough question, but answer can be written even without knowing micro details through generallised approach.


Importance of Blue LED 

Although LED had been around for more than 50 years but these LED were monochromatic (one color) in nature. Only red and green color LED were available, the blue color LED was not invented which restricted the making of white LEDs. As white LED can only be made by a combination of the three primary colors LED, e., green, red, and blue. So, Gallium nitride was the key ingredient used by the Nobel laureates in their ground-breaking blue LEDs. The invention of blue LEDs opened floodgates for several applications.

Impact of LED on everyday Life 

  • Replaced the traditional incandescent bulb, as the latter was only monochromatic and energy guzzler. While LED is available in different colors and energy efficient.
  • Essential component in digital screens because they offer higher contrast than their predecessor technologies and are also energy efficient.
  • Organic-LED which offers flexibility in shaping the screens. o-LED has now widely used in wearable devices, smartphones etc.
  • Greater durability which up to 10 times more than the incandescent bulbs.
  • Amount of light from LED can be varied, i.e., LEDs can very easily be dimmed by modulating the input current which is not possible in the earlier light bulbs.
  • Offers great variation in size

Common Mistakes Made by students

Students thinking they cannot approach such question is a big mistake.

Q17. Describe the major outcomes of the 26th session of the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). What are the commitments made by India in this conference? (Answer in 250 words)


Very easy question, straightforward.


India’s commitment at COP-26

  1. India announced that its net zero target is to be achieved by 2070.
  2. The Government of India has launched ‘E-Amrit’, a web portal on electric vehicles (EVs), in COP-26. The portal will encourage adoption of EV and bust myth regarding it.
  3. India did not join methane pledge as it would have negatively impacted India’s agriculture.
  4. India will fulfil 50% of its energy requirement through renewable energy by 2030.
  5. India will reduce 1 billion tonnes of carbon emissions by 2030.

Q18. Describe the various causes and the effects of landslides. Mention the important components of the National Landslide Risk Management Strategy. (Answer in 250 words)


Easy question


A landslip/landslide is defined as the rapid movement of a mass of rock, debris, or earth, down a slope under the influence of gravity. They are a natural phenomenon whose frequency has significantly increased due to anthropogenic causes.

Causes of Landslides 

  • Climate change: Rising global temperature has led to extreme rainfall events, increased melting of glaciers; as a result, more water flows over the steep slope. E.g. Increased flooding and landslip incidents in Kerala.
  • Tectonically active Himalaya: Himalayas being a young fold mountain range, lies above an active convergent zone which is prone to earthquakes.
  • Population pressure: Rising population over a fixed land availability increases pressure on land. Deforestation and dam construction for developmental activities, slope modification significantly reduces soil binding capacity, making them prone to erosion and landslides. E.g. Char Dham project in Uttarakhand.
  • Nature of rivers: Rivers in Himalayas are in their youthful stage. Swift flow of river over a steep slope result in vertical corrosion and down-cutting. This enhances the occurrence of landslides.
  • Deforestation

Effects of landslides

Short Term Effects

·       Loss of Lives and Properties.

·       Roadblocks, destruction of railway lines.

·       Channel blocking due to rock – falls

·       Diversion of river courses due to landslides causing floods

·       Loss of natural Beauty.

Long term impacts:

  • Permanent landscapes can be changed.
  • Cultivable land can be loss.
  • Soil erosion and permanent loss of fertile soil.
  • Population shift and relocation of populations and establishments.
  • Drying up natural water resources.

Important components of the National Landslide Risk Management strategy 

  • Generation of User-Friendly Landslide Hazard Maps
  • Development of Landslide Monitoring and Early Warning System
  • Awareness Programmes
  • Capacity Building and Training of Stakeholders
  • Preparation of Mountain Zone Regulations & Policies
  • Stabilization and Mitigation of Landslides and Creation of Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) for Landslide Management.

Q19. Analyse the multidimensıonal challenges posed by external state and non-state actors, to the internal security of India. Also discuss measures required to be taken to combat these threats. (Answer in 250 words)


Challenge posed by external state actors: 

  1. May support various insurgent groups such as Naxalites or separatist groups through illegal money, supplying arms etc.
  2. Instability in Jammu and Kashmir by the Pakistan (Pakistan’s state policy to bleed India through a thousand cuts)
  3. External state actors may also indulge in cyberattacks, thus affecting national security. (e.g. cyberattacks emanating from China)

Non-state actors:  

  1. Terrorism: State sponsored terrorism as well as support to other terrorist groups such as Lashkar-e-Taiba, Jaish-e-Mohammad by Pakistan.
  2. Indulging in counterfeit currency and money laundering activities and providing illegal funds to insurgents in NE India
  3. Inter and Intra state drug trafficking (proximity to golden crescent and golden triangle routes).
  4. The deep-rooted nexus between drug mafias, arms dealers, and money launderers for financing terrorism.

Measures required to combat these threats are: 

  1. Effective communication and co-ordination between intelligence agencies and law enforcement agencies. To ensure better coordination, interoperability among the agencies must be improved.
  2. Cyber security measures to thwart any attempt of cyber attacks
  3. Collaboration between the government, media and the public to ensure quick and efficient sharing of information about suspicious activities to the law enforcement agencies.
  4. Local police forces must be well trained and well equipped with necessary gears so that they can respond to the terrorist attacks until the Special Forces reach the site.

Q20. Analyse the complexity and intensity of terrorism, its causes, linkages and obnoxious nexus. Also suggest measures required to be taken to eradicate the menace of terrorism. (Answer in 250 words)


Causes of terrorism 

  • Illiteracy, poor governance, poverty.
  • Corruption
  • Historical injustice and human rights violation
  • Narrative that has a negative connotation
  • High unemployment
  • Radicalisation and fanaticism.

Sources of terrorist funding that provide for linkage and an obnoxious nexus

  • Drugs and smuggling
  • Illicit trafficking
  • Extortion and Hawala trading
  • Radicalisation and brain washing by organisation to produce a certain kind of version of what is honest and real.
  • The introduction of the internet has made the youth the most vulnerable amongst all the groups as they are widely recruited to fulfil the brutish objectives.
  • They try to breach the security of the country using secessionist means.
  • The terrorism is emerging fast as a competitive industry that uses land, labor, capital and entrepreneurship to use it to meet their illegitimate demands and desires.

Measures to eradicate the menace of terrorism

  • There is a need for a security oriented approach that involves a collaboration between police and intelligence and also redress the causes that can be a possible hotbed for the rise of the terrorist activities.
  • It is vital to combat the threats associated with terrorism the Mumbai attack, the Pathankot attack still are so fresh in the memories of  the countrymen. Therefore there must be agreement on various parameters so that a national strategy be drawn out.
  • Ensuring the fruits of socio economic development are inclusive.
  • The administration is more accountable. And more respondent to the needs of the people.
  • Coordination between different agencies responsible for the security of the country.
  • Legislative Measures – Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967, Prevention of Money Laundering Act, 2002
  • Strengthening Border Management to prevent cross border terrorist activities.
  • FATF
  • UN Conventions on Transnational Organised crime and UN Convention on Corruption

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Essay MasterClass

Gain amazing insights on how to secure high marks in the essay paper by Ravi Kapoor, IRS

AI Guided Revisions

Use our innovative learning solution using a "mini AI" to master important topics of mapping

Ethics Infographics

A visual mind maps based notes on ethics completing whole syllabus in 15 infographics